イタリア

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イタリア(イタリア語:イタリア [iˈtaːlja] 聞く)、正式にはイタリア共和国(イタリア語: Repubblica Italiana [reˈpubːlikaitaˈljaːna])、 [13] [14] [15] [16]は、アルプス、半島、およびその周辺のいくつかの島で区切られた大陸部分で構成される国です。イタリアは南ヨーロッパに位置し[17] [18]、西ヨーロッパの一部と見なされています。 [19] [20]ローマを首都とする単一議会制共和国で、国の総面積は301,340 km 2(116,350平方マイル)で、国境を共有しています。 フランス、スイス、オーストリア、スロベニア、およびとenclavedの微視的状態バチカン市国とサン・マリノ。イタリアには、スイスに領土の飛び地(カンピオーネ)があり、チュニジア海域に海上飛び地(ランペドゥーサ島)があります。人口約6000万人のイタリアは、欧州連合の3番目に人口の多い加盟国です。

南ヨーロッパと地中海の中心的な地理的位置のため、イタリアは歴史的に無数の人々と文化の故郷でした。現在のイタリア全体に散在するさまざまな古代の人々に加えて、最も支配的なのは、古典時代から半島に名前を付けたインド・ヨーロッパ語族の イタリック人であり、フェニキア人とカルタゴ人は主にイタリア島嶼部に植民地を設立しました。[21]ギリシャ人は、南イタリアのいわゆるマグナグラエキアに集落を設立した 、エトルリア人とケルト人はそれぞれイタリア中部と北部に住んでいました。ラテン人として知られるイタリック族は紀元前8世紀にローマ王国を形成し、最終的には元老院と国民の政府とともに共和国になりました。ローマ共和国は当初、征服と同化し、最終的に、イタリア半島の隣国を拡大し、征服の部品ヨーロッパ、北アフリカやアジアを。紀元前1世紀までに、ローマ帝国は地中海盆地の支配的な権力として浮上し、イタリアの法律、技術、経済、芸術、文学が発展した200年以上の期間、パックスロマーナを発足させ、主要な文化的、政治的、宗教 的中心地になりました。[22] [23]イタリアはローマ人の故郷であり、帝国の大都市であり続けました。その遺産は、文化、政府、キリスト教、そしてラテン文字。

中は中世初期、イタリアは耐え西ローマ帝国の秋と野蛮な侵略が、11世紀、多くのライバルで都市国家と海洋共和国、主にイタリアの北部および中部地域では、貿易を通じて偉大な繁栄に上昇しました商業と銀行業、現代資本主義の基礎を築く。[24]これらのほとんど独立した州は、アジアおよび近東とのヨーロッパの主要な貿易ハブとして機能し、多くの場合、より大きな封建制よりも高度な民主主義を享受していた。ヨーロッパ全体で統合されていた君主制。しかし、イタリア中部の一部は、の制御下にあった神政 教皇領ながら、南イタリアは一部の承継の結果として、19世紀までは、主に封建残ったビザンチン、アラブ、ノルマン、アンジュー、アラゴンや他の外国人の征服領域。[25]ルネサンスは新たな関心もたらし、ヨーロッパの残りの部分にイタリア・普及に始まったヒューマニズム、科学、探査や芸術を。イタリア文化は繁栄し、有名な学者、芸術家、博学者を生み出しました。中世の間に、イタリアの探検家は極東と新世界への新しいルートを発見し、ヨーロッパの大航海時代の到来を告げました。それにもかかわらず、イタリアの商業的および政治的権力は、地中海を迂回する交易路の開通により大幅に衰退しました。[26]何世紀にもわたる外国の干渉と征服、そして15世紀と16世紀のイタリア戦争などのイタリア都市国家間の競争と争いは、イタリアを政治的に断片化させ、さらに征服され、複数の外国のヨーロッパ勢力に分割された。何世紀にもわたって。

19世紀半ばまでに、イタリアのナショナリズムの高まりと外国の支配からの独立の要求は、革命的な政治的混乱の時期をもたらしました。何世紀にもわたる外国の支配と政治的分裂の後、1861年にイタリアはほぼ完全に統一され、イタリア王国を大国として確立しました。[27]後半19世紀初頭から20世紀に、イタリア急速に主に北に、工業化し、取得した植民地帝国、[28]をしながら、南は大部分が疲弊し、残った工業化から除外し、大きな影響力と燃料補給、ディアスポラを。[29]の一つであるにもかかわらず、第一次世界大戦中に4つの主要な連合国、イタリアの上昇につながる、経済危機と社会的混乱の時代に入ったイタリアのファシストの中に1922年の参加で独裁二次世界大戦で枢軸終了側軍事的敗北、経済的破壊、そしてイタリア内戦において。イタリアの解放とイタリアの抵抗の台頭に続いて、国は彼らの君主制を廃止し、民主共和国を設立し、長引く景気循環を享受し、そして高度に発展した国になりました。 [30]

今日、イタリアは世界で最も文化的および経済的に先進国の1つと見なされており[30] [31] [32]、名目GDPで世界第8位(欧州連合で第3位)、国富で第6位です。そして3番目に大きい中央銀行の金準備。それは平均余命、生活の質、[33] ヘルスケア、[34]そして教育において非常に高くランク付けされています。この国は、地域的および世界的な経済、軍事、文化、外交において重要な役割を果たしています。それは地域大国[35] [36]であり、大国でもあります、[37] [38]であり、世界で8番目に強力な軍隊にランクされています。イタリアで創業し、一流のメンバーで、欧州連合(EU)とを含む多数の国際機関のメンバー国連、NATO、OECD、欧州安全保障協力機構、世界貿易機関、七のグループ、G20、地中海のための連合、欧州評議会、コンセンサス連合、シェンゲン圏およびその他多数。多くの発明と発見の源であるこの国は、長い間芸術、音楽、文学、哲学、科学技術、ファッションの世界的な中心地であり、映画、料理、スポーツ、法学などのさまざまな分野に大きな影響を与え、貢献してきました。銀行業とビジネス。[39]その文化的豊かさを反映して、イタリアには世界最大の世界遺産があります中国と並んで、5番目に訪問された国です。

名前

共和政ローマの樹立からディオクレティアヌスまでのイタリアとして知られる領土の拡大

「イタリア」という名前の語源についての仮説は数多くあります。[40]一つは、を介して借りたことであるギリシャ語からoscanの Víteliú「子牛の土地」(参照 緯度 vitulus「ふくらはぎ」、UMB vitlo「ふくらはぎ」)。[41]ギリシャの歴史ハリカルナッソスのディオニュシオスはイタリアの名にちなんで名付けられたという伝説と一緒にこのアカウントを述べItalus、[42]によっても言及アリストテレス[43]とトゥキュディデス。[44]

よるとシラキュースのアンティオコス、用語イタリアは最初に、現代の地域に対応したBruttium半島の南の部分にのみ参照するためにギリシャ人によって使用されたレッジョとの地方の一部カタンツァーロとビーボバレンチアで南イタリア。それにもかかわらず、彼の時代までに、オイノートリアと「イタリア」のより大きな概念は同義語になり、その名前はルカニアのほとんどにも適用されました。ストラボンの地理誌によると、共和政ローマが拡大する前は、ギリシャ人はメッシーナ海峡の間の土地を示すためにこの名前を使用していました。そしてラインが接続サレルノ湾とターラント湾を現在の領域にほぼ対応し、カラブリア。ギリシャ人は徐々に「イタリア」という名前をより広い地域に適用するようになりました[45]南部の「ギリシャのイタリア」に加えて、歴史家は中央イタリアのさまざまな地域をカバーする「エトルリアのイタリア」の存在を示唆しました。[46]

イタリア本土、イタリアの国境はより確立されています。カトーのORIGINES、の最初の仕事の歴史に作曲ラテン語は、全体の半島の南とイタリアを説明アルプス。[47]カトと数人のローマ人の作家によると、アルプスは「イタリアの壁」を形成した。[48]紀元前264年、イタリア本土は中央北のアルノ川とルビコン川から南全体に広がった。ガリアキサルパインゴールの北部地域は紀元前220年代にローマによって占領され、地理的にも事実上イタリアの一部と見なされるようになりました[49]。しかし、政治的に残り、デ・ジュリは分離されました。それは、シーザーの未発表の行為(アクタシーザリス)の批准として、三頭政治オクタヴィアンによって紀元前42年にイタリアの行政単位に合法的に統合されました。[50] [51] [52] [53] [54]サルデーニャ、コルシカ、シチリア、マルタの島々は、西暦292年にディオクレティアヌスによってイタリアに追加されました。[55]

歴史

先史時代と古代

マテーラのサッシ洞窟住居は、旧石器時代にまでさかのぼるイタリアで最初の人間の居住地の1つです。[56]

何千もの旧石器時代の遺物がモンテポッジョーロから回収され、現在の約85万年前にさかのぼり、半島で最初のヒト族が生息していたことを示す最も古い証拠となっています。[57]イタリア全土での発掘調査により、約20万年前の旧石器時代にさかのぼるネアンデルタール人の存在が明らかになりました[58]。一方、現代の人間は約4万年前にリパロモチに現れました。[59]この期間の遺跡は、アダウラ洞窟、Altamuraの、チェプラーノ、及びプーリアグラヴィーナを。[60]

古代の人々前ローマイタリア-などUmbrians、ラテン系(そこからローマが出現)、ウォルスキ族、Oscans、Samnites、サビニ、ケルト人、Ligures、ベネト、Iapygiansや他の多くは-ましたIndo-ヨーロッパの人々、特にイタリックグループの人々。可能性のある非インド・ヨーロッパ語族または先印欧語族の遺産の主な歴史的人々には、イタリア中部および北部のエトルリア人が含まれます。シチリアのエリミ人とシカニ人、そしてヌラーゲ文明を生んだ先史時代の サルデーニャ人。未定の言語族であり、インド・ヨーロッパ以外の起源である可能性のある他の古代の人口には、ラエティの人々と、世界最大の先史時代のペトログリフのコレクションであるヴァルカモニカの岩の彫刻で知られるカムニが含まれます。[61] 1991年に南チロルのシミラン氷河で5,000歳(紀元前3400年から3100年、銅器時代)と決定されたアイスマンのオッツィとして知られる保存状態の良い天然ミイラが発見された。[62]

最初の外国人植民者はフェニキア人でした。フェニキア人は最初に植民地を設立し、シチリア島とサルデーニャ島の海岸にさまざまな帝国を設立しました。これらのいくつかはすぐに小さな都市の中心になり、ギリシャの植民地と並行して開発されました。メインセンターの中の都市があったMotya、Zyz(現代パレルモ)、Soluntumシチリアとでノラ、脳溝、およびタロスサルデーニャ島では。[63]

紀元前17世紀から11世紀にかけて、ミケーネ文明はイタリアとの接触を確立し[64] [65] [66] [67]、紀元前8世紀から7世紀にかけて、シチリア島の海岸と南部に沿って多数のギリシャ植民地が設立されました。マグナグラエキアとして知られるようになったイタリア半島の一部。ギリシャの植民地化により、イタリックの人々は民主的な政府形態と、芸術的および文化的表現の向上と接触するようになりました。[68] ]

フェニキア人とギリシャ人の植民地化

最初の外国人植民者はフェニキア人で、最初はシチリア島とサルデーニャ島の海岸にさまざまな帝国を設立しました。これらのいくつかはすぐに小さな都市の中心になり、ギリシャの植民地と並行して発展します。メインセンターの中の都市ですモツィア、Zyz、Kfraシチリア島とでノラ、脳溝、タロスサルデーニャ島では。[69]

紀元前8世紀以降、ギリシャからの植民者が南イタリアの海岸に定住し、マグナグラエキアとシチリアの海岸に命を吹き込みました。イオニア入植者が設立Elaia、Kyme、Rhegion、ナクソス、Zankles、Hymeraとカタネを。ドーリア式の入植者は、タラス、シラクーサイ、メガラヒュブライア、レオンティノイ、アクラガス、ゲラスを設立しました。Syracusansアンコンとアドリアを設立。メガリーゼはセリヌンテを設立しました。アカイアは設立シバリス、ポセイドニア、Kroton、Lokroi EpizephyrioiとMetapontumを。tarantiniとthuriotsがHerakleiaを見つけました。

ギリシャの植民地化を置きイタリック人を政府の民主的な形態とし、高い芸術的、文化的表現と接触して。[70]

古代ローマ

ローマのコロッセオ、建てられたc。西暦70〜80年は、古代史の建築と工学の最も優れた作品の1つと見なされています。
ローマ帝国の最大限で、117 AD

ローマ、川の上の浅瀬の周りの決済テヴェレ従来イタリア中部で設立紀元前753年には、による244年の期間に支配された君主当初の君主で、システムラテン語とザビーネ後にエトルリア人の王によって、起源。 :伝統は7人の王受け継がロムルス、ヌマ・ポンピリウス、トゥッルス・ホスティリウス、アンクス・マルキウス、Tarquiniusプリスカス、セルウィウス・トゥッリウスとTarquinius超大型。紀元前509年、ローマ人は最後の王を自分たちの街から追放し、上院と国民(SPQR)と寡頭共和国の設立。

名前のイタリア半島、イタリアでは、ローマの中に単一のエンティティに統合された拡張を犠牲にして、新たな土地の征服をし、他の斜体の部族、エトルリア人、ケルト人、そしてギリシャ人。ほとんどの地元の部族や都市との恒久的な関係が形成され、ローマは西ヨーロッパ、北アフリカ、中東の征服を始めました。きっかけにジュリアス・シーザーの台頭と死一世紀のBCで、ローマは巨大に何世紀ものコースを超える増加した帝国から伸びブリテンペルシャの国境に、そしてギリシャとローマと他の多くの文化がユニークな文明に融合した地中海沿岸全体を飲み込みます。初代皇帝アウグストゥスの長く勝利を収めた統治は、平和と繁栄の黄金時代を迎えました。イタリアでは帝国のメトロポールのまま、そしてローマ人の祖国と資本の領土として、それは「ない州が、作られた特別な地位を維持ドミナの(定規)州を」。[71] 2世紀以上の安定が続き、その間、イタリアはrectrix mundi(世界の女王)と呼ばれ、omn​​ium terrarum parens(すべての土地の祖国)。[72]

ローマ帝国は、当時の世界で最も強力な経済的、文化的、政治的、軍事的勢力の1つであり、世界史上最大の帝国の1つでした。トラヤヌスの下の高さで、それは500万平方キロメートルをカバーしました。[73] [74]ローマの遺産は西洋文明に深く影響を与え、現代世界のほとんどを形作っています。ローマ支配の多くの遺産の中には、ラテン語から派生したロマンス諸語の普及、記数法、現代の西洋のアルファベットとカレンダー、そして主要な世界の宗教としてのキリスト教の出現があります。[75]紀元前1世紀頃に始まったインドとローマの貿易関係は、遠く離れた地域での広範なローマの貿易を証明しています。間の商業貿易の多くのリマインダインド亜大陸とイタリアは、このような象牙の小像として、発見されたポンペイラクシュミの遺跡からポンペイ。

西暦3世紀以降のゆっくりとした衰退の中で、帝国は西暦395年に2つに分裂しました。西洋帝国は、圧力の下で野蛮な侵略その最後の皇帝、とき、最終的に476 ADに溶解ロムルス・アウグストゥルスは、ゲルマンチーフによって解任されたオドアケル。帝国の東半分はさらに1000年生き残った。

中世

ロンバルディアの鉄王冠、何世紀のシンボルイタリアの王

後は西ローマ帝国の秋、イタリアはオドアケルのの力の下に落ちた王国、そして、後で、によって押収された東ゴート、[76]は簡単なので6世紀に続いレコンキスタの下ビザンチン皇帝ユスティニアヌス。同じ世紀の終わりに、別のゲルマン部族であるロンバード人の侵入により、ビザンチンの存在はラヴェンナ総督府のしわくちゃの領域にまで減少し、次の1、300年間の半島の政治的統一の終わりが始まりました。半島の侵略は、野蛮な王国の混沌とし​​た継承といわゆる「暗黒時代」を引き起こしました"。その後、ランゴバルド王国は8世紀後半にシャルルマーニュによってフランク帝国に吸収されました。フランク人は中央イタリアの教皇領の形成にも貢献しました。13世紀まで、イタリアの政治は聖ローマ人との関係によって支配されていました。皇帝と教皇領。イタリアの都市国家のほとんどは、一時的な都合から前者(ギベリン)または後者(ゲルフ)の側に立っていた。[77]

13世紀の探検家であるマルコポーロは、24年間の旅を世界の驚異の書に記録し、中央アジアと中国にヨーロッパ人を紹介しました。[78]

ゲルマン皇帝とローマ教皇は中世ヨーロッパの普遍的な力になりました。しかし、叙任論争(王、伯爵、公爵などの世俗的な権威が教会の役職への任命において正当な役割を果たしたかどうかについての2つの根本的に異なる見解をめぐる対立)とゲルフとギベリンの間の衝突は終わりに至りました都市国家が独立を獲得したイタリア北部の帝国封建制度の概要。イタリアの町が独特の機関である中世のコミューンの台頭を見たのは、この混沌とし​​た時代でした。極端な領土の断片化と帝国と聖座の間の闘争によって引き起こされた権力の真空を考えると、地域社会は法と秩序を維持するための自律的な方法を模索していました。[79]叙任論争は、最終的に叙任権者によって解決された。1176年、都市国家のリーグであるロンバルディア同盟は、レニャーノの戦いでドイツ皇帝フリードリヒバルバロッサを破り、イタリア北部と中央部のほとんどの都市で効果的な独立を確保しました。

間の14世紀の競合グエルフとギベリン党で描かとして派閥ヌオーヴァCronicaによってジョヴァンニ・ヴィッラーニ

ミラノ、フィレンツェ、ヴェネツィアなどのイタリアの都市国家は、銀行業務の主要な手段と慣行、および新しい形態の社会的および経済的組織の出現を考案し、金融開発において決定的な革新的な役割を果たしました。[80]沿岸および南部地域では、海事共和国が成長し、最終的に地中海を支配し、東洋への交易路を独占した。それらのほとんどはかつてビザンチン帝国に属していた領土に由来していましたが、それらは独立した制海権の都市国家でした。独立時のこれらすべての都市には、商人階級がかなりの権力を持っていた同様の政府システムがありました。実際にはこれらはオリガルヒカルであり、現代とはほとんど似ていませんでした民主主義、彼らが与えた相対的な政治的自由は、学術的および芸術的進歩を助長しました。[81]最もよく知られている4つの海事共和国は、ヴェネツィア、ジェノア、ピサ、アマルフィでした。他はアンコーナ、ガエタ、ノリ、ラグーザでした。[82] [83] [84]各海事共和国は、多くの地中海の島々(特にサルデーニャとコルシカ)、アドリア海、エーゲ海、黒海(クリミア)の土地、近東と北アフリカの商業植民地など、さまざまな海外の土地を支配していました。ヴェネツィアは、17世紀半ばまで、ギリシャ、キプロス、イストリア、ダルマチアに広大な土地を維持していました。[85]

:イタリア海軍の旗。ヴェネツィア、ジェノヴァ、ピサ、アマルフィ、最も著名な海事共和国の紋章が表示されています。
:ジェノバ (赤帝国とベネチア (緑)帝国の交易路と植民地。

ヴェネツィアとジェノヴァはヨーロッパの東との貿易の主要な玄関口であり、高級ガラスの生産者であり、フィレンツェは絹、羊毛、銀行、宝飾品の首都でした。そのようなビジネスがイタリアにもたらした富は、大規模な公的および私的な芸術プロジェクトを委託できることを意味しました。共和国は十字軍に深く関与し、支援と輸送を提供しましたが、特にこれらの戦争から生じる政治的および貿易の機会を利用しました。[81]イタリアは最初にヨーロッパで巨大な経済変化を感じ、それが商業革命につながった。ヴェネツィア共和国はビザンチン帝国を打ち負かし、マルコポーロの航海に資金を提供することができた。アジアへ;最初の大学はイタリアの都市に設立され、トマス・アクィナスなどの学者は国際的な名声を得ました。シチリアのフレデリックは、イタリアを神聖ローマ帝国とエルサレム王国を一時的に含む統治の政治文化の中心地にしました。資本主義と銀行家はフィレンツェで出現し、ダンテとジョットは1300年頃に活動しました。[24]

南部では、シチリアは9世紀にイスラム首長国になり、11世紀後半にイタリア南部のロンバード公国とビザンチン公国のほとんどとともに、イタリアのノルマン人がそれを征服するまで繁栄していました。[86]複雑な一連の出来事を通じて、南イタリアは統一された王国として発展し、最初はホーエンシュタウフェンの家の下で、次にアンジューのカペティアンの家の下で、そして15世紀からアラゴンの家の下で発展した。ではサルデーニャ島、かつてのビザンチンの州は、イタリアのように知られている独立した状態になったJudicates、しかし島のいくつかの部分は15世紀の最終的なアラゴン併合までジェノバまたはピサンの支配下にありました。黒死病の パンデミック1348のは、おそらく人口の三分の一を殺すことで、イタリアにその足跡を残しました。[87] [88]しかし、疫病からの回復は都市、貿易、経済の復活につながり、ヒューマニズムとルネッサンスの開花を可能にし、後にヨーロッパに広がった。

近世

1494年にイタリア戦争が始まる前のイタリアの州

イタリアは、1400年代から1500年代にかけて、ルネッサンスの発祥の地であり中心地でした。イタリアのルネサンスは、ヨーロッパでの危機から、経済的及び文化的に、回復として現代に中世からの移行をマーク中世後期と入力された近世を。イタリアの政治組織は現在、効果的に支配地域の状態だったプリンセス、事実上の貿易や行政の制御に君主、そして彼らの裁判所は、の主要都市になった芸術と科学。イタリアの王子は、封建的な君主制や多国籍帝国とは対照的に、近代国家の最初の形態を表しています。 princedomsは、次のような政治的王朝と商人の家族によって導かれたメディチでフィレンツェ、ヴィスコンティとスフォルツァにミラノ公国、ドリアでのジェノヴァ共和国、モチェニーゴとバルバリゴにヴェネツィア共和国、エステでフェラーラ、そしてゴンザガでマントヴァ。[89] [90]したがって、ルネッサンスは、イタリアの商人都市によって蓄積された莫大な富と、その支配的な家族の後援の結果でした。[89]イタリアのルネッサンスのようなアーティストと、その後何世紀にもわたって、その後のヨーロッパの絵画や彫刻に支配的な影響力を行使レオナルド・ダ・ヴィンチ、ブルネレスキ、ボッティチェリ、ミケランジェロ、ラファエロ、ジオット、ドナテッロ、とティツィアーノ、とのような建築家フィリッポ・ブルネレスキ、レオンバティスタアルベルティ、アンドレアパラディオ、ドナトブラマンテ。

自画像の典型的なルネッサンスの男、レオナルド・ダ・ヴィンチ(1512年頃、王立図書館、トリノ)

コンスタンツ公会議(1415–1417)でローマを支持する西方分裂が終結した後、新しい教皇マルティヌス5世は、多くのイタリアの都市に触れ、唯一のイタリアを復活させた3年間の旅の後、教皇領に戻りました。西方キリスト教の中心地。この航海の過程で、メディチ銀行は教皇庁の公式の信用機関になり、教会と半島の新しい政治王朝との間にいくつかの重要な関係が確立されました。選挙君主制としての教皇の地位は、コンクラーヴェと教会会議を変えました半島での優位性とカトリック教会の莫大な資源へのアクセスのためのイタリアの裁判所間の政治的戦いへのルネッサンスの影響。 1439年、教皇エウゲニウス4世とビザンチン皇帝ヨハネス8世パリオロゴスは、旧メディチ家のコジモが主催したフィレンツェ公会議で、カトリック教会と正教会の間で和解協定に署名しました。 1453年、ジョヴァンニジュスティニアーニの下のイタリア軍は、コンスタンティノープルの城壁を守るために教皇ニコラウス5世から派遣されましたが、大砲を装備したより高度なトルコ軍に決定的な戦いが敗れました。ビザンチウムはスルタンメフメト2世に落ちました。

コンスタンティノープル陥落は、ギリシャの学者やテキストのイタリアへの移住につながり、ギリシャローマヒューマニズムの再発見を後押ししました。[91] [92] [93]のようなヒューマニスト支配者フェデリーコ・ダ・モンテフェルトロとピウス2世は確立に働いた理想的な都市の男は万物の尺度であり、そのために設立ウルビーノとピエンツァをそれぞれ。ピコ・デラ・ミランドラは、ルネサンスのヒューマニズムのマニフェストと見なされている人間の尊厳に関するオレーションを書き、その中で彼は人間の自由意志。ヒューマニストの歴史家レオナルド・ブルーニは、古代、中世、近代の3つの時代に人類の歴史を最初に分けました。[94]コンスタンティノープル陥落の2番目の結果は、大航海時代の始まりでした。

クリストファー・コロンブスは、1492年に新世界への遠征を指揮します。彼の航海は、ヨーロッパの視点からの南北アメリカの発見として祝われ、人類の歴史と2つの世界間の持続的な接触の新しい時代を開きました。

オスマン帝国を迂回するためにインディーズへの代替ルートを見つけることを熱望し、大西洋諸国の君主にサービスを提供し、大航海時代とヨーロッパの植民地化を導く上で重要な役割を果たした、支配的な海事共和国からのイタリアの探検家と航海士アメリカ大陸の。その中で最も注目に値するのは次のとおりです。クリストファー・コロンブス、スペインの名で植民者。新世界を発見し、ヨーロッパ人による征服と定住のために南北アメリカを開いたとされています。[95]ジョン・カボットは、1497年に「ニューファンドランド」に足を踏み入れ、北アメリカ大陸の一部を探検した最初のヨーロッパ人であるイギリスに向けて航海した。[96]アメリゴ・ヴェスプッチ 、ポルトガルに向けて航海しました。ポルトガルは、1501年頃に、新世界(特にブラジル)が最初に推測されたアジアではなく、旧世界の人々には以前は知られていなかった4番目の大陸(アメリカは彼にちなんで名付けられました)であることを最初に示しました。[97] [98]とジョバンニ・ダ・ヴェラッツァーノは、フランスに仕え、1524年にフロリダとニューブランズウィックの間の北アメリカの大西洋岸を探検した最初のヨーロッパ人として有名でした。[99]

コンスタンティノープル陥落後、ロンバルディア戦争は終結し、ヴェネツィア、ナポリ、フィレンツェ、ミラノ、教皇庁の間でイタリックリーグと呼ばれる防衛同盟が結成されました。ロレンツォ・ザ・マグニフィセント・デ・メディチは、ルネッサンスの最も偉大なフィレンツェの守護聖人であり、イタリックリーグの支持者でした。彼は特にパッツィ家の陰謀の余波とトルコ人によるイタリア侵攻の中止の間にリーグの崩壊を避けました。しかし、イタリアでのフランスのシャルル8世の軍事作戦は、イタリックリーグの終結を引き起こし、ヴァロワ家とハプスブルク家の間でイタリア戦争を開始しました。間にしたがって、1500年代の盛期ルネサンス期のイタリアは、ヨーロッパの主要な戦場であり、大陸の文化経済の中心地でもありました。ユリウス2世(1503〜 1513年)などの教皇は、外国の君主に対してイタリアを支配するために戦いました。パウルス3世(1534〜 1549年)などの他の教皇は、イタリアの平和を確保するためにヨーロッパの勢力の間を仲介することを好みました。この紛争の真ん中で、メディチ家は、教皇レオX(1513年から1521年)とクレメンス7世(1523年から1534年)は反対し、プロテスタントの改革をし、家族の利益を進めました。戦争の終結により、最終的にイタリア北部は間接的にオーストリアのハプスブルク家の支配下に置かれ、スペインのハプスブルク家の直接支配下にある南イタリア。

教皇庁は独立したままであり、対抗宗教改革を開始しました。この期間の主なイベントは次のとおりです。トレント公会議(1545–1563)。エリザベス1世(1570年)とレパントの海戦(1571年)の破門。どちらもピウス5世の教皇時代に起こった。グレゴリオ天文台の建設、グレゴリオ暦の採用、および教皇グレゴリウス13世の下でのマテオリッチのイエズス会中国ミッション。宗教のフランスの戦争。ロングトルコ戦争との実行ジョルダーノ・ブルーノ1600年、教皇クレメンス8世の下で;誕生Lynceanアカデミーの教皇領主な図があったの、ガリレオ・ガリレイ(後で入れ裁判に)。ウルバヌス8世とイノセントX世の教皇時代の三十年戦争(1618〜 1648年)の最終段階。大トルコ戦争中のイノセントXIによる最後の神聖同盟の結成

イタリア経済は、半島が大西洋奴隷貿易の増加から除外されたため、1600年代と1700年代に衰退しました。 18世紀のヨーロッパの継承戦争の後、南はスペインのブルボン家の分家に渡され、北はオーストリアのハプスブルク家-ロレーヌの影響下に置かれました。中に連合ウォーズ、北部・中部イタリアは数にナポレオンによって再編成された姉妹共和国のフランスと後でとしてイタリア王国で個人的な労働組合とフランス帝国。[100]半島の南半分は、ジョアシャン・ミュラによって管理されていた、ナポリ王として戴冠したナポレオンの義兄。1814年のウィーン会議は、18世紀後半の状況を回復させましたが、フランス革命の理想を根絶することはできず、19世紀の前半を特徴付ける政治的混乱の間にすぐに再浮上しました。

イタリア統一

ジュゼッペマッツィーニ (左)、イタリア革命運動の非常に影響力のあるリーダー。そしてジュゼッペ・ガリバルディ (右)は、現代の最も偉大な将軍の一人として祝わ[101]と「二つの世界のヒーロー」として、[102]命じやイタリア統一運動につながったことを多くの軍事作戦で戦いました

イタリア王国の誕生は、サヴォイア家に忠誠を誓うイタリアの民族主義者と君主主義者が、イタリア半島全体を網羅する統一王国を樹立するための努力の結果でした。1815年のウィーン会議に続いて、政治的および社会的なイタリア統一運動、またはリソルジメントが出現し、イタリアを統一して半島のさまざまな州を統合し、外国の支配から解放しました。著名なラジカルの図は、愛国的なジャーナリストだったジュゼッペ・マッツィーニ、秘密の革命的な社会の一員カルボナリと影響力のある政治運動の創始者青年イタリア1830年代初頭、彼は単一共和国を支持し、幅広いナショナリスト運動を提唱しました。彼のプロパガンダの多作は、統一運動が活発であり続けるのを助けました。

1829年から1871年までのイタリア統一のアニメーション地図

青年イタリアの最も有名なメンバーは、革命的で一般的なジュゼッペ・ガリバルディであり、彼の非常に忠実な信奉者で有名であり[103]、南イタリアでのイタリア共和党の統一運動を主導した。しかし、サルデーニャ王国のサヴォイア家の北イタリア君主制は、カヴール伯爵のカミッロ・ベンソが政府を率いており、イタリアの統一国家を樹立するという野心も持っていました。ヨーロッパを席巻した1848年の自由主義革命の文脈で、失敗した最初の独立戦争がオーストリアで宣言されました。 1855年、サルデーニャ王国はクリミア戦争でイギリスとフランスの同盟国になりました、大国の目にカブールの外交の正当性を与える。[104] [105]サルデーニャ王国は、1859年の第二次イタリア独立戦争でフランスの助けを借りて再びオーストリア帝国を攻撃し、ロンバルディアを解放した。プロンビエールの密協定に基づいて、サルデーニャ王国はサヴォワとニースをフランスに譲渡しました。これは、ニサールの脱出を引き起こした出来事であり、ニサールのイタリア人の4分の1がイタリアに移住したことです。[106]

1860年から1861年にかけて、ガリバルディはナポリとシチリア(千人隊)の統一運動を主導し[107]、サヴォイア家軍はローマと教皇領の一部を除くイタリア半島の中央領土を占領しました。テアーノは、1860年10月26日にジュゼッペガリバルディとビクターエマニュエル2世の間で行われた有名な会議の場所でした。、最後のサルデーニャ王。ガリバルディがビクターエマニュエルの手を握り、彼をイタリア王として歓迎した。したがって、ガリバルディは君主制の下でのイタリア統一のために共和党の希望を犠牲にした。カヴールこれはサルデーニャ政府が月1861年17上の統一イタリア王国を宣言するために許可され1860年にはサルデーニャ王国に労働組合に加入することができガリバルディの南イタリアを含めることに同意した[108]ビクターエマニュエルIIは、その後、Aの最初の王となりましたイタリアを統一し、首都はトリノからフィレンツェに移されました。

1866年、ヴィットーリオエマヌエル2世は普墺戦争中にプロイセンと同盟を結び、イタリアがベネチアを併合することを可能にした第3次イタリア独立戦争を遂行しました。最後に、1870年、フランスが悲惨な普仏戦争中にローマの駐屯地を放棄して大規模なプロイセン軍を寄せ付けなかったため、イタリア人は教皇領を乗っ取って権力のギャップを埋めようと急いだ。イタリア統一が完了し、その後まもなくイタリアの首都はローマに移されました。ビクターエマニュエル、ガリバルディ、カブール、マッツィーニは、イタリアの祖国4人の父と呼ばれています。[101]

君主時代

イタリア統一の第一人者であるヴィットーリオエマヌエル2世とカミッロベンソ、カブール伯爵は、それぞれ統一イタリアの第一王と第一首相になりました。

新しいイタリア王国は列強の地位を獲得しました。1848年のアルベルト憲法であるサルデーニャ王国の憲法は1861年にイタリア王国全体に拡大され、新国家の基本的自由を規定しましたが、選挙法は非所有者および教育を受けていない階級を投票から除外しました。新王国政府は、自由主義勢力が支配する立憲君主制の枠組みの中で行われた。北イタリアが急速に工業化するにつれ、北の南部と農村地域は未発達で人口過密のままであり、何百万人もの人々が海外に移住することを余儀なくされ、大規模で影響力のあるディアスポラを煽っていました。イタリア社会党 絶えず強さを増し、伝統的なリベラルで保守的な確立に挑戦しました。

19世紀の最後の20年間から、イタリアはその支配下で東アフリカのエリトリアとソマリア、北アフリカのトリポリタニアとキレナイカ(後にリビアの植民地で統一された)とドデカニサ諸島を強制することによって植民地の大国に発展しました。[109] 1899年11月2日から1901年9月7日に、イタリアはまたの一部として参加八カ国同盟の中の力義和団の乱中国で。1901年9月7日、天津での譲歩は国に割譲され、1902年6月7日に、譲歩はイタリアの所有に持ち込まれ、領事によって管理されました。1913年、男性の普通選挙権が採用されました。1892年から1921年の間に5回首相を務めたジョヴァンニジョリッティが支配した戦前は、イタリア社会の経済的、産業的、政治文化的近代化が特徴でした。

統一国の最初の王を祝うイタリアの国家の象徴であり、第一次世界大戦後のイタリアの未知の兵士の休憩所であるローマのビクターエマニュエルII記念碑

イタリアに入力された第一次世界大戦国家統一を完了することを目的に1915年に:このような理由のために、第一次世界大戦中のイタリアの介入も考慮され、独立の第四イタリア戦争、[110]史料視点でで識別していること後者はイタリア統一の結論であり、その軍事行動は1848年の最初のイタリア独立戦争の革命の間に始まりました。[111] [112]

名目上と同盟イタリア、ドイツ帝国との帝国、オーストリア・ハンガリーでトリプルアライアンス、1915年に入社、連合軍をして第一次世界大戦に約束西部含めかなりの領土利益の、ノトランスカ地方を、旧オーストリア沿岸、ダルマチアだけでなく、オスマン帝国の一部として。国は「ビッグフォー」のトップ連合国の1つとして紛争の勝利に根本的な貢献をしました。イタリア軍が長い消耗戦で立ち往生したため、戦争は当初決定的ではありませんでしたアルプスでは、ほとんど進歩がなく、非常に大きな損失を被っています。しかし、軍隊の再編成といわゆる'99 BoysRagazzi del '99、18歳になった1899年に生まれたすべての男性)の徴兵は、モンテグラッパやモンテグラッパなどの主要な戦闘でより効果的なイタリアの勝利につながりました。ピアーヴェ川での一連の戦いで。最終的に、1918年10月、イタリア人は大規模な攻撃を開始し、ヴィットリオ・ベネトの勝利に至りました。イタリアの勝利、[113] [114] [115]によって発表されたBollettino・デッラ・ヴィットリアBollettino・デッラ・ヴィットリアNavaleイタリア戦線での戦争の終わりを示し、オーストリア・ハンガリー帝国の解散を確保し、2週間以内に第一次世界大戦を終わらせることに主に尽力しました。

戦争中、65万人以上のイタリア兵と多くの民間人が亡くなり[116]、王国は破産の危機に瀕しました。サン=ジェルマン条約(1919年)とラパッロ条約(1920年)の併合許可トレンティーノ・アルト・アディジェ-、ヴェネツィア・ジュリア、イストリア、クヴァルネルだけでなく、ダルメシアンの都市ザラを。その後のローマ条約(1924年)により、フィウメ市がイタリアに併合されました。イタリアはロンドン条約(1915年)によって約束された他の領土を受け取らなかったので、この結果は「骨抜きにされた勝利」。「骨抜きにされた勝利」のレトリックはベニート・ムッソリーニによって採用され、 イタリアのファシズムの台頭につながり、ファシストイタリアの宣伝の要点になりました。歴史家は「骨抜きにされた勝利」を「政治的神話」と見なし、ファシストによってイタリア帝国主義を煽り、第一次世界大戦後のリベラルなイタリアの成功を覆い隠した。[117]イタリアはまた、国際連合の執行評議会の常任議席を獲得した。

ファシスト政権

ベニート・ムッソリーニ、デュースのファシストイタリア

社会主義の扇動に触発された一次世界大戦の荒廃、続くロシア革命は、イタリア全土反革命と弾圧につながりました。ソビエト式の革命を恐れた自由主義の確立は、ベニート・ムッソリーニが率いる小さな全国ファシスト党を支持し始めました。 1922年10月、ファシスト党の黒シャツ隊は「ローマ進軍」という名前のクーデターを試みましたが、失敗しましたが、最後の最後にヴィットーリオエマヌエル3世王が包囲状態を宣言することを拒否し、ムッソリーニ首相を任命した。次の数年間、ムッソリーニはすべての政党を禁止し、個人の自由を縮小し、独裁政権を形成しました。これらの行動は国際的な注目を集め、最終的にはナチスドイツやフランコ主義スペインなどの同様の独裁政権に影響を与えました。

イタリアのファシズムはイタリアのナショナリズムに基づいており、特にイタリアの州にイタリア・イレデンタ(未回収のイタリア)を組み込むことによって、リソルジメントの不完全なプロジェクトと見なされるものを完成させようとしています。[118] [119]イタリアの東にあるファシストは、ダルマチアはイタリア文化の地であり、イタリア化された南スラブ系の人々を含むイタリア人がダルマチアから追い出されてイタリアに亡命し、帰国を支持したと主張した。ダルマチアの遺産のイタリア人の。[120]ムッソリーニは、ダルマチアがローマ帝国とヴェネツィア共和国。[121]イタリアの西側で、ファシストはフランスが所有していたコルシカ、ニース、サボイの領土はイタリアの土地であると主張した。[122] [123]ファシスト政権は、島のイタリアの証拠を提示するコルシカ島に関する文献を作成した。[124]ファシスト政権は、ニースが歴史的、民族的、言語的根拠に基づいたイタリアの土地であることを正当化するニースに関する文献を作成した。[124]

ピーク時にイタリア帝国によって支配されていた地域

1935年、ムッソリーニはエチオピアに侵攻し、イタリア領東アフリカを設立しました。その結果、国際的な疎外が生じ、国際連盟からのイタリアの撤退につながりました。イタリアはナチスドイツや大日本帝国と同盟を結び、スペイン内戦でフランシスコフランコを強力に支援しました。 1939年、イタリアは数十年にわたって事実上の保護領であるアルバニアを併合しました。イタリアは1940年6月10日に第二次世界大戦に突入しました。最初にイギリスのソマリランド、エジプト、バルカンで前進した後そして東部戦線では、イタリア人は東アフリカ、ソビエト連邦、北アフリカで敗北しました。

第一次世界大戦の終わりにイタリアとオーストリア・ハンガリー帝国の間の戦いを終わらせたヴィラ・ジュスティの休戦は、ユーゴスラビアの近隣地域のイタリア併合をもたらしました。戦間期に、ファシストのイタリア政府は、それが付属した地域でイタリア化のキャンペーンを実施し、それはスラブ語、学校、政党、および文化施設を抑圧しました。第二次世界大戦中、イタリアの戦争犯罪には、主にユダヤ人、クロアチア人、スロベニア人を含む約25,000人が、ラブ、ゴナルスなどのイタリアの集中キャンプに強制送還された超法規的殺人と民族浄化[125]が含まれていました。Monigo、Renicci diAnghiariなど。イタリアとユーゴスラビアでは、ドイツとは異なり、戦争犯罪はほとんど起訴されませんでした。[126] [127] [128] [129] ユーゴスラビアのパルチザンは、戦時中および戦後、地元のイタリア民族(イストリアのイタリア人とダルマチアのイタリア人)に対する大量殺戮を指すフォイベの虐殺を含む、イタリア人に対する独自の犯罪を犯した。、主にジュリアンマーチ、イストリア、クヴァルネル、ダルマチアで。この用語は、しばしば生きたままフォイバに投げ込まれた犠牲者を指します(深い自然陥没穴;ひいては、体を隠すための坑道などの使用にも適用されました)。

ハスキー作戦が上のファシスト政権とムッソリーニの秋の崩壊につながる、1943年7月に始まった7月25日。ムッソリーニは、不信任決議を通過したファシズム大評議会のメンバーの大多数と協力して、ヴィットーリオエマヌエル3世王の命令により証言録取され逮捕されました。9月8日、イタリアはカッシビレの休戦協定に署名し、連合国との戦争を終結させました。イタリアのファシストに助けられたドイツ人は、まもなくイタリア北部と中央部の支配権を握ることに成功しました。連合国が南からゆっくりと上昇していたので、国は戦争の残りの間戦場のままでした。

1945年4月にボローニャに入るアメリカ兵

北部では、ドイツ人がイタリア社会共和国(RSI)を設立しました。これは、ムッソリーニがドイツのパラトルーパーに救出された後、リーダーとして設置されたナチスの傀儡国家です。南部の一部のイタリア軍は、残りの戦争の間連合国と一緒に戦ったイタリア共同交戦軍に編成されましたが、ムッソリーニと彼のRSIに忠実な他のイタリア軍は、イタリア共和国のドイツ人と一緒に戦い続けました陸軍。その結果、国は内戦に陥った。また、休戦後の期間には、大規模な反ファシスト抵抗運動、レジステンザの台頭が見られました、ドイツ軍とRSI軍に対してゲリラ戦争を戦った。 1945年4月下旬、完全な敗北が迫り、ムッソリーニは北への脱出を試みたが[130]、イタリアのパルチザンによってコモ湖の近くで捕らえられ、即決処刑された。その後、彼の遺体はミラノに運ばれ、そこで彼の死を確認するために、サービスステーションに逆さまに吊るされました。[131]敵対行為は、イタリアのドイツ軍が降伏した1945年4月29日に終了した。50万人近くのイタリア人(民間人を含む)が紛争で亡くなりました[132]。そしてイタリア経済はほとんど破壊されていた。1944年の一人当たりの所得は、20世紀初頭以来の最低点でした。[133]

共和党イタリア

アルチーデ・デ・ガスペリ、イタリアの最初の共和党首相であり、欧州連合の創設者の一人

イタリアは、1946年6月2日に行われた国民投票[134]の後、共和国記念日として祝われた日、共和国になりました。イタリアの女性が投票する資格を与えられたのもこれが初めてでした。[135] ヴィットーリオ・エマニュエル3世の息子、ウンベルト2世は退位を余儀なくされ、追放された。共和党の憲法は、 1の下で1月、1948年に承認されたイタリア、1947年との平和条約、イストリア、クヴァルネル、ほとんどのヴェネツィア・ジュリアだけでなく、ダルメシアンの都市ザラはに併合されたユーゴスラビア原因イストリア難民の脱出により、23万人から35万人の地元のイタリア人(イストリアイタリア人とダルマチアイタリア人)が移住し、その他はスロベニア人、クロアチア人、イストロルーマニア人であり、イタリア市民権を維持することを選択しました。[136]その後、トリエステ自由地域は2つの州に分割された。イタリアはまた、植民地の所有物をすべて失い、正式にイタリア帝国を終わらせました。 1950年、イタリア領ソマリランドは1960年7月1日まで、イタリアの管理下にある国連信託統治領になりました。今日適用されるイタリアの国境は、1975年に存在していました。トリエステは正式にイタリアに再併合されました。

1957年3月25日のローマ条約の調印式は、現在の欧州連合の前身である欧州経済共同体を創設しました。

1948年4月18日、アルチーデ・デ・ガスペリの指導の下、キリスト教民主党が圧勝したとき、共産党による乗っ取りの可能性に対する恐れが(特に米国で)最初の普通選挙の選挙結果にとって決定的に重要であることが証明されました。[137] [138]その結果、1949年にイタリアはNATOの加盟国となった。マーシャル・プランは、 1960年代後半までは、一般的に「と呼ばれる持続的な経済成長の期間楽しんで、イタリア経済復活に貢献した経済の奇跡を」。1957年、イタリアは欧州経済共同体(EEC)の創設メンバーであり、欧州連合になりました。 (EU)1993年。

1960年代後半から1980年代初頭にかけて、この国は鉛の時代を経験しました。これは、経済危機(特に1973年の石油危機後)、広範な社会紛争、対立する過激派グループによるテロリストの虐殺を特徴とする時期であり、米国とソビエトの諜報機関。[139] [140] [141]鉛の時代は、1978年にキリスト教民主党の指導者アルド・モロが暗殺され、1980年にボローニャ駅が虐殺され、85人が死亡した。

1980年代、1945年以来初めて、2つの政府が非キリスト教民主党首相によって率いられました。1人は共和党員(ジョヴァンニスパドリーニ)、もう1人は社会主義者(ベッティーノクラクシ)です。しかし、キリスト教民主党は依然として主要政党でした。クラクシ政権時代、経済は回復し、イタリアは1970年代にグループ・オブ・セブンに参入した後、世界で5番目に大きな工業国になりました。しかし、彼の支出政策の結果として、イタリアの国家債務はクラクシ時代に急増し、すぐに国のGDPの100%を超えました。

1980年8月2日のボローニャ爆破事件の犠牲者の葬式、鉛の時代にイタリアでこれまでに行われた最も致命的な攻撃

イタリアは、「マフィア大裁判」中に宣告されたいくつかの終身刑と政府によって開始された新しい反マフィア措置の結果として、1992年から1993年の間にシチリアマフィアによって行われたいくつかのテロ攻撃に直面しました。 1992年、2つの主要なダイナマイト攻撃により、裁判官のジョヴァンニファルコーネ(5月23日、カパーチ爆撃)とパオロボルセリーノ(7月19日、アメリオ通りの虐殺)が殺害されました。[142] 1年後(1993年5月〜7月)、フィレンツェのゲオルゴフィリ通り、ミラノのパレストロ通り、ラテラノのサンジョバンニ広場などの観光スポットが攻撃された。ローマのサンテオドロ通りでは、死者10人、負傷者93人が残り、ウフィツィ美術館などの文化遺産に深刻な被害をもたらしています。カトリック教会はマフィアを公然と非難し、2つの教会が爆撃され、反マフィアの司祭がローマで射殺されました。[143] [144] [145]また、1990年代初頭、イタリアは有権者として重大な課題に直面しました。政治的麻痺、巨額の公的債務、クリーンハンズ(マニプリーテ)によって明らかにされた大規模な汚職システム(タンジェントポリとして知られる)に魅了されました。)調査–抜本的な改革を要求した。スキャンダルはすべての主要政党、特に連立政権の政党を巻き込んだ。ほぼ50年間統治していたキリスト教民主党は深刻な危機に見舞われ、最終的に解散し、いくつかの派閥に分裂した。[146]共産主義者は社会民主主義勢力として再編成された。 1990年代から2000年代にかけて、中道右派(メディア王シルヴィオベルルスコーニが支配)と中道左派連立(ロマーノプロディ大学教授が率いる)が交互に国を統治しました。

大不況の中で、ベルルスコーニは2011年に辞任し、彼の保守的な政府はマリオモンティのテクノクラート内閣に取って代わられました。[147] 2013年の総選挙後、民主党の エンリコ・レッタ副書記が左右の大連立の長に新政府を結成した。 2014年、PDマッテオ・レンツィの新書記に異議を唱えられたレッタは辞任し、レンツィに代わりました。新政府は上院の廃止などの重要な憲法改正を開始した そして新しい選挙法。 12月4日、国民投票で憲法改正が却下され、レンツィは辞任した。パオロ・ジェンティローニ外務大臣が新首相に任命された。[148]

2010年代のヨーロッパの移民危機では、イタリアはEUに入るほとんどの庇護希望者の入り口であり主要な目的地でした。 2013年から2018年にかけて、この国は70万人以上の移民と難民を受け入れ、[149]主にサハラ以南のアフリカから[150]、それが公共の財布に大きな負担をかけ、極右または欧州懐疑的な政党への支持を急増させました。 。[151] [152] 2018年の総選挙はの健闘を特徴とした五つ星運動とリーグや大学教授ジュゼッペ・コンテはの先頭に総理大臣になったポピュリスト連合これらの2つの当事者の間。[153]しかし、わずか14か月後、リーグは、五つ星運動と中道左派の間に新しい前例のない連立政権を形成したコンテへの支持を撤回した。[154] [155]

COVID-19緊急事態に直面するイタリア政府タスクフォース

2020年、イタリアはCOVID-19パンデミックに深刻な打撃を受けました。[156] 3月から5月にかけて、コンテ政府は病気の蔓延を制限する手段として国の封鎖を課し[157] [158]、次の冬にはさらなる制限が導入された。[159]世論によって広く承認されているにもかかわらず、この措置は[160]、共和国の歴史の中で最大の憲法上の権利の抑圧としても説明された。[161] [162] 115,000人以上の犠牲者が確認されたイタリアは、世界で最も多くの死者を出した国の1つでした。世界的なコロナウイルスのパンデミック。[163]パンデミックは深刻な経済的混乱も引き起こし、イタリアは最も影響を受けた国の1つとなった。[164]

2021年2月、過半数の政府危機の後、コンテは辞任を余儀なくされ、欧州中央銀行の前大統領であるマリオドラギは、ほぼすべての主要政党に支持された挙国一致内閣を結成し[165]、パンデミックによって引き起こされた危機に直面するための経済的刺激。[166]

地理

イタリアの地形図

イタリアは南ヨーロッパに位置し(西ヨーロッパの一部とも見なされます)[19]、緯度35°から47°N、経度6°から19°Eです。北では、イタリアはフランス、スイス、オーストリア、スロベニアと国境を接し、ポー平原とベネチア平原を囲むアルプスの流域によって大まかに区切られています。南には、イタリア半島全体と2つの地中海の島々で構成されています。多くの小さな島に加えて、シチリア島とサルデーニャ島(地中海の2つの最大の島)。主権国家サンマリノとバチカン市国はある飛び地イタリア、内の[167] [168]一方、カンピオーネ・ディタリアはイタリア語で飛び地スイスインチ[169]

国の総面積は301,230平方キロメートル(116,306平方マイル)であり、そのうち294,020 km 2(113,522平方マイル)が陸地で、7,210 km 2(2,784平方マイル)が水域です。[170]島々を含め、イタリアはアドリア海、イオニア、ティレニア海(740 km(460 mi))に7,600 km(4,722マイル)の海岸線と国境を持ち、フランスと共有する国境(488 km(303 mi))を持っています。 、オーストリア(430 km(267 mi))、スロベニア(232 km(144 mi))、スイス(740 km(460 mi))。サンマリノ(39 km(24 mi))とバチカン市国(3.2 km(2.0 mi))は、どちらも飛び地で、残りを占めています。[170]

欧州連合の最高点であるアオスタバレーのモンブラン(モンテビアンコ)
マルケ州のアペニン山脈の風景

イタリアの領土の35%以上は山岳地帯です。[171]アペニン山脈は朝鮮半島のバックボーンを形成し、アルプスはイタリアの最高点が配置され、その北の境界、ほとんどの形成モンブラン(モンテビアンコ)(4810メートルまたは15780フィートを)。[注1]イタリアの他の世界的に有名な山々には、マッターホルン(モンテ・セルヴィーノ)、モンテローザ、西アルプスのグランパラディゾ、東側のベルニーナ、ステルヴィオ、ドロミテがあります。

ポー、イタリアの最長の川(652キロまたは405マイル)は、フランスとの西部国境にアルプスから流れと交差パダン平野をへ向かう途中でアドリア海。ポー平原はイタリアで最大の平野であり、46,000 km 2(18,000平方マイル)であり、国の総平野面積の70%以上を占めています。[171]

イタリアの領土の多くの要素は火山起源です。カプラーイア、ポンツァ、イスキア、エオリア、ウスティカ、パンテレリアなど、南部の小さな島々や群島のほとんどは火山島です。活火山もあります。シチリア島のエトナ山(ヨーロッパで最大の活火山)、ヴルカーノ、ストロンボリ、ベスビオ山(ヨーロッパ本土で唯一の活火山)です。

五大湖は、減少サイズのために、である:[172] ガルダ(367.94キロ2または142平方マイル)、マッジョーレ(212.51キロ2またはマイナー北部でスイス82平方マイル)、コモ(145.9キロ2又は56平方マイル)、トラジメーノ(124.29キロ2または48平方マイル)とボルセーナ(113.55キロ2または44平方マイル)。

この国にはイタリア半島、隣接する島々、そして南アルプス盆地のほとんどが含まれていますが、イタリアの領土の一部はアルプス盆地を超えて広がり、一部の島はユーラシア大陸棚の外にあります。これらの地域は、comuni:のリヴィーニョ、セスト、サン・カンディド、ドッビアーコ(部分的に)、Chiusaforteの、タルヴィージオ、クローン・ヴェノスタのすべての部分は、(部分的に)、ドナウの流域ながら、ヴァルディレイの一部を構成しますライン川流域とランペドゥーサ諸島とランピョーネはアフリカ大陸棚にあります。

ウォーターズ

チンクエテッレのイタリアン・リヴィエラ
ポー川の三角州のフラミンゴ

四つの異なる海はイタリア半島囲む地中海を:三方からアドリア海、東の[173]イオニア海、南は[174]とリグリア海とティレニア海、西に。[175]

島々を含め、イタリアの海岸線は7,900kmです。[176] [177] [178]イタリアの海岸には、アマルフィ海岸、シレンタン海岸、神々の海岸、コスタヴェルデ、リビエラデッレパルメ、リビエラデルブレンタ、コスタスメラルダ、トラボッキ海岸が含まれます。イタリアン・リヴィエラは近く、フランスとの国境から延びる、ほぼすべてのリグーリア州の海岸線の含まヴェンティミリアカポコルボ、湾のマーク東端に東ラ・スペツィア。[179] [180]

アペニン山脈は半島の全長に沿って走り、水を2つの反対側に分けます。一方、比較的豊富な雨と、雪原と氷河のあるイタリア北部のアルプス山脈の存在のために、川はたくさんあります。基本的な流域は、アルプスとアペニン山脈の尾根に沿っており、川が流入する海に対応する5つの主要な斜面、アドリア海、イオン、ティレニア海、リグーリア海、地中海の境界を定めています。[181]その起源を考慮して、イタリアの川は2つの主要なグループに分けることができます:アルプス-ポー川とアペニン島川。[181]

ほとんどのイタリアの川アドリア海の中へ、などのいずれかのドレインポー、ピアーヴェ、アディジェ、ブレンタ、タリアメント、およびリノのような、またはティレニアに、アルノ、テヴェレ川とヴォルトゥルノ。 (いくつかのボーダー自治体から海域リヴィーニョでロンバルディア州、サン・カンディドとセスト中トレンティーノアルトアディジェ/Südtirolにドレイン)黒海の流域てドラバ、支流のドナウ川、およびロンバルディア州のレーイ湖からの水は、ライン川流域を通って北海に流れ込みます。[182]

エオリア諸島沖のティレニア海のイルカ

イタリアで最も長い川はポーで、652 km(405 mi)または682 km(424 mi)(右岸支流のマイラの長さを考慮)を流れ、その源流はピアンデルレの石の多い丘の中腹から湧き出る泉です。先頭の平らな場所ヴァルポーの北西顔の下Monviso。ポー周辺の広大な渓谷は、ポー渓谷(イタリア語:PianuraPadanaまたはValPadana)と呼ばれ、国の主要な工業地帯です。 2002年には、1600万人以上がそこに住んでいました。当時、イタリアの人口のほぼ1/3でした。[183] 2番目に長いイタリアの川は、レジア湖の近くを起源とするアディジェ川です。キオッジャ近くの南北ルートを作った後、アドリア海に流れ込みます。[184]

国の北部には、一般にイタリアの湖と呼ばれる、いくつかの大きな亜高山帯のモレーンダム湖があります。イタリアで1000の以上の湖がある[185]で最大のうちガルダ(370キロ2または143平方マイル)が。他の周知の亜高山湖であるマッジョーレ湖(212.5キロ2、その最も北部スイス、の一部であるか、または82平方マイル)、コモ(146キロ2または56平方マイル)、のいずれか最深湖ヨーロッパにおいて、オルタ、ルガノ、Iseo、およびIdro。[186]イタリア半島の他の顕著な湖があるトラジメーノ、ボルセーナ、ブラッチャーノ、ヴィーコ、ヴァラーノとLesinaの中ガルガーノとOmodeoサルデーニャインチ[187]

イタリアの海岸沿いには、アドリア海北部のヴェネツィア、グラードラグーン、マラノラグーン、トスカーナ海岸のオルベテッロラグーンなどのラグーンがあります。過去にイタリアの広大な平坦な地域を覆っていた沼地や池は、ここ数世紀でほとんど干上がってきました。[185]エミリア・ロマーニャのコマッキオ渓谷やサルデーニャのスターニョ・ディ・カリアリなど、残りのいくつかの湿地は保護された自然環境です。[185]

火山学

世界で最も活発な火山の1つであるエトナ山
世界で最も人口密度の高い火山の1つであるベスビオ山

この国はユーラシアプレートとアフリカプレートの合流点に位置しており、かなりの地震活動と火山活動につながっています。イタリアには14の火山があり、そのうち4つが活動しています:エトナ、ストロンボリ、ヴルカーノ、ベスビオ。最後の活火山はヨーロッパ本土で唯一の活火山であり、西暦79年の噴火でポンペイとヘルクラネウムが破壊されたことで最も有名です。いくつかの島と丘は、火山活動によって作成されており、かつ大きな活性まだあるカルデラ、カンピ・フレグレイは ナポリの北西。

高い火山活動とマグマの新生活動は、州に細分されます。

  • マグマトスカーナ(モンティチミニ、トルファ、アミアータ); [188] [189]
  • マグマ性ラチウム(モンティヴォルシーニ、ヴィーコネルラツィオ、コッリアルバーニ、ロッカモンフィーナ); [189] [190]
  • 超アルカリウンブリアラティウム地区(サンヴェナンツォ、Cupaelloとポリーノ)。[189] [190]
  • 火山の鐘(ベスビオ、カンピフレグレイ、イスキア); [189] [190]
  • 風の強いアーチとティレニア海盆(エオリア諸島とティレニア海山); [189] [190]
  • アフリカ-アドリア海のアバンパ(シチリア海峡、グレアム島、エトナ山、ヴルトゥレ山)。[189] [190]

イタリアは、地熱エネルギーを利用して電力を生産した最初の国でした。[191]半島の一部を形成する高い地熱勾配は、他の州でも潜在的に利用可能になります。1960年代と1970年代に実施された研究により、ラツィオとトスカーナ、およびほとんどの火山島の潜在的な地熱地帯が特定されました。[191]

環境

イタリアの国立公園と広域公園

イタリアは急速な産業成長を遂げた後、環境問題に立ち向かうのに長い時間を要しました。いくつかの改善を経て、現在では生態系の持続可能性で世界で84位にランクされています。[192] 国立公園は国の約5%をカバーしています。[193]

過去10年間で、イタリアは再生可能エネルギーの世界有数の生産国の1つになり、設置された太陽エネルギー容量の世界第4位の保有者[194] [195]、2010年の風力発電容量の第6位の保有者としてランク付けされました。[196 ]再生可能エネルギーは現在、イタリアの総一次および最終エネルギー消費量の約12%を占めており、2020年の将来の目標シェアは17%に設定されています。[197]しかし、特に工業化された地域では、大気汚染は依然として深刻な問題です。北、1990年代に産業用二酸化炭素排出量の世界で10番目に高いレベルに達しました。[198]イタリアは12番目に大きい二酸化炭素の生産者。[199] [200]

1970年代から1980年代にかけてスモッグのレベルが劇的に低下し、スモッグの存在がますますまれな現象になり、二酸化硫黄のレベルが低下しているにもかかわらず、大都市圏での大規模な交通と混雑は、深刻な環境と健康の問題を引き起こし続けています。[201]

1922年に設立されたグランパラディーゾは、イタリア最古の国立公園です。

多くの水路や沿岸部も産業活動や農業活動によって汚染されていますが、水位が上昇しているため、ヴェネツィアは近年定期的に洪水に見舞われています。産業活動からの廃棄物は、必ずしも法的手段によって処分されるわけではなく、セベソ災害の場合のように、被災地の住民に恒久的な健康影響をもたらしています。国はまた、1963年から1990年の間にいくつかの原子炉を運転したが、チェルノブイリ事故とこの問題に関する国民投票の後原子力計画は終了しました。この決定は2008年に政府によって覆され、フランスの技術で最大4つの原子力発電所を建設することを計画していました。これは、福島原発事故後の国民投票によって打撃を受けました。[202]

森林伐採、違法な建物開発、不十分な土地管理政策により、イタリアの山岳地帯全体で深刻な侵食が発生し、1963年のバイオントダムの洪水、1998年のサルノ[203]、2009年のメッシーナの 土砂崩れなどの大規模な生態学的災害が発生しました。この国の2019年の森林景観保全性指数の平均スコアは3.65 / 10で、172か国中142位にランクされています。[204]

生物多様性

イタリアの狼アペニン山脈と西アルプスに生息する、ラテン語などの伝説のようなイタリアの文化、で目立つ特徴ローマの建国。[205]

イタリアはヨーロッパで最も高いレベルの動物相の 生物多様性を持っており、57,000種以上が記録されており、ヨーロッパのすべての動物相の3分の1以上を占めています。[206]イタリアの多様な地質構造は、その高い気候と生息地の多様性に貢献しています。イタリア半島は地中海の中心にあり、中央ヨーロッパと北アフリカの間の回廊を形成し、8,000 km(5,000マイル)の海岸線があります。イタリアはまた、バルカン半島、ユーラシア、中東から種を受け取ります。アルプスとアペニン山脈、中央イタリアの森林地帯、南イタリアのガリーグとマキスの低木地など、イタリアの多様な地質構造も、高い気候と生息地の多様性に貢献しています。

イタリアの動物相には、サルディニアの長耳コウモリ、サルディニアのアカシカ、スペクタクルサンショウウオ、茶色の洞窟サンショウウオ、イタリアのイモリ、イタリアのカエル、アペニンの黄色い腹のヒキガエル、エオリアの壁のトカゲ、シチリアの壁のトカゲ、イタリアのクスシヘビなど、4,777の固有の動物種が含まれていますヘビ、そしてシチリアの池のカエル。 102の哺乳類種があります(特にイタリアオオカミ、マルシカヒグマ、ピレネーシャモア、アルパインは、アイベックス、紋付きヤマアラシ、地中海モンクアザラシ、アルパインマーモット、コビトジャコウネズミ、および欧州の雪ハタネズミ)、516種の鳥類と56213個の無脊椎動物種を。

イタリアの植物相は、伝統的に約5,500の維管束植物種を含むと推定されていました。[207]しかしながら、2005年の時点で、6,759種がイタリアの維管束植物のデータバンクに記録されています。[208]イタリアは、ヨーロッパの野生生物と自然生息地の保護に関するベルン条約と生息地指令の両方に署名しており、イタリアの動植物を保護しています。

気候

イタリアのケッペンガイガー気候分類マップ[209]

半島の縦方向の広がりが大きく、ほとんどが山岳地帯であるため、イタリアの気候は非常に多様です。内陸北部および中央地域のほとんどでは、気候は湿潤亜熱帯から湿潤大陸性および海洋性にまで及びます。特に、ポー平原の地理的地域の気候はほとんど大陸性であり、厳しい冬と暑い夏があります。[210] [211]

リグーリア州、トスカーナ州、および南部のほとんどの沿岸地域は、一般に地中海性気候のステレオタイプ(ケッペンの気候区分Csa)に適合しています。半島の沿岸地域の条件は、特に高地が寒く、雨が多く、雪が降る傾向がある冬の間は、内部の高地や谷とは大きく異なる可能性があります。沿岸地域は穏やかな冬と暖かく、一般的に乾燥した夏がありますが、低地の谷は夏にはかなり暑くなる可能性があります。冬の平均気温は0 °C(32  °F)から変化します )アルプスではシチリア島の12°C(54°F)までなので、夏の平均気温は20°C(68°F)から25°C(77°F)以上の範囲です。冬は国全体で大きく異なり、北は寒く、霧が多く、雪が降り、南は穏やかで日当たりの良い時期が続きます。夏は全国、特に南部で高温多湿になる可能性がありますが、北部と中央部では春から秋にかけて激しい雷雨が発生することがあります。[212]

政治

イタリアは、1946年6月2日、君主制が国民投票によって廃止されて以来、単一の 議会制共和国となっています。イタリアの大統領(Presidente della Repubblica)は、2015年から現在セルジョマッタレッであり、イタリアの国家元首です。大統領は、イタリア議会と一部の地域有権者が合同会議で7年間の任期で選出されます。イタリアには、すべての反ファシストの代表者によって形成された制憲議会の活動の結果として書かれた民主的な憲法があります南北戦争中にナチスとファシストの軍隊の敗北に貢献した軍隊。[213]

政府

2015年からイタリアのセルジョマッタレッラ
大統領
マリオドラギ
首相
2021年以来イタリア

イタリアには、比例投票と主要投票の混合投票システムに基づく議会政府があります。議会は完全である二院制両院、:下院で満たしモンテチトーリオ宮殿、及び共和国の上院で満たしパラッツォマダマ、同じ力を持っています。首相、正式に大臣評議会の議長(Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri)は、イタリアの政府の長です。首相と内閣はイタリア共和国大統領によって任命され、就任するには議会への信頼の投票に合格しなければなりません。首相であり続けるためには、議会への不信任決議または不信任決議の最終的な投票も通過する必要があります。

下院は、イタリアの下院です。

首相は、 効果的な行政権を保持する大臣評議会の議長であり、ほとんどの政治活動を実行するには、首相から承認の投票を受ける必要があります。事務所は他のほとんどの議会制度と同様ですが、イタリア政府の指導者はイタリア議会の解散を要求する権限がありません。

Another difference with similar offices is that the overall political responsibility for intelligence is vested in the President of the Council of Ministers. By virtue of that, the Prime Minister has exclusive power to: co-ordinate intelligence policies, determining the financial resources and strengthening national cyber security; apply and protect State secrets; authorise agents to carry out operations, in Italy or abroad, in violation of the law.[214]

A peculiarity of the Italian Parliament is the representation given to Italian citizens permanently living abroad: 12 Deputies and 6 Senators elected in four distinct overseas constituencies. In addition, the Italian Senate is characterised also by a small number of senators for life, appointed by the President "for outstanding patriotic merits in the social, scientific, artistic or literary field". Former Presidents of the Republic are ex officio life senators.

Italy's three major political parties are the Five Star Movement, the Democratic Party and the Lega. During the 2018 general election these three parties and their coalitions won 614 out of 630 seats available in the Chamber of Deputies and 309 out of 315 in the Senate.[215] Berlusconi's Forza Italia which formed a centre-right coalition with Matteo Salvini's Northern League and Giorgia Meloni's Brothers of Italy won most of the seats without getting the majority in parliament. The rest of the seats were taken by Five Star Movement, Matteo Renzi's Democratic Party along with Achammer and Panizza's South Tyrolean People's Party & Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party in a centre-left coalition and the independent Free and Equal party.

Law and criminal justice

The Supreme Court of Cassation

The Italian judicial system is based on Roman law modified by the Napoleonic code and later statutes. The Supreme Court of Cassation is the highest court in Italy for both criminal and civil appeal cases. The Constitutional Court of Italy (Corte Costituzionale) rules on the conformity of laws with the constitution and is a post–World War II innovation. Since their appearance in the middle of the 19th century, Italian organised crime and criminal organisations have infiltrated the social and economic life of many regions in Southern Italy, the most notorious of which being the Sicilian Mafia, which would later expand into some foreign countries including the United States. Mafia receipts may reach 9%[216][217] of Italy's GDP.[218]

A 2009 report identified 610 comuni which have a strong Mafia presence, where 13 million Italians live and 14.6% of the Italian GDP is produced.[219][220] The Calabrian 'Ndrangheta, nowadays probably the most powerful crime syndicate of Italy, accounts alone for 3% of the country's GDP.[221] However, at 0.013 per 1,000 people, Italy has only the 47th highest murder rate[222] compared to 61 countries and the 43rd highest number of rapes per 1,000 people compared to 64 countries in the world. These are relatively low figures among developed countries.

Law enforcement

An Alfa Romeo 159 vehicle of the Carabinieri corps

The Italian law enforcement system is complex, with multiple police forces.[223] The national policing agencies are the Polizia di Stato (State Police), the Arma dei Carabinieri, the Guardia di Finanza (Financial Guard), and the Polizia Penitenziaria (Prison Police),[224] as well as the Guardia Costiera (coast guard police).[223]

The Polizia di Stato are a civil police supervised by the Interior Ministry, while the Carabinieri is a gendarmerie supervised by the Defense Ministry; both share duties in law enforcement and the maintenance of public order.[224] Within the Carabinieri is a unit devoted to combating environmental crime.[223] The Guardia di Finanza is responsible for combating financial crime and white-collar crime,[224] as well as customs.[223] The Polizia Penitenziaria are responsible for guarding the prison system.[224] The Corpo Forestale dello Stato (State Forestry Corps) formerly existed as a separate national park ranger agency,[223][224] but was merged into the Carabinieri in 2016.[225] Although policing in Italy is primarily provided on a national basis,[224] there also exists Polizia Provinciale (provincial police) and Polizia Municipale (municipal police).[223]

Foreign relations

Group photo of the G7 leaders at the 43rd G7 summit in Taormina

Italy is a founding member of the European Economic Community (EEC), now the European Union (EU), and of NATO. Italy was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, and it is a member and a strong supporter of a wide number of international organisations, such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade/World Trade Organization (GATT/WTO), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the Council of Europe, and the Central European Initiative. Its recent or upcoming turns in the rotating presidency of international organisations include the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe in 2018, the G7 in 2017 and the EU Council from July to December 2014. Italy is also a recurrent non-permanent member of the UN Security Council, the most recently in 2017.

Italy strongly supports multilateral international politics, endorsing the United Nations and its international security activities. As of 2013, Italy was deploying 5,296 troops abroad, engaged in 33 UN and NATO missions in 25 countries of the world.[226] Italy deployed troops in support of UN peacekeeping missions in Somalia, Mozambique, and East Timor and provides support for NATO and UN operations in Bosnia, Kosovo and Albania. Italy deployed over 2,000 troops in Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) from February 2003.

Italy supported international efforts to reconstruct and stabilise Iraq, but it had withdrawn its military contingent of some 3,200 troops by 2006, maintaining only humanitarian operators and other civilian personnel. In August 2006 Italy deployed about 2,450 troops in Lebanon for the United Nations' peacekeeping mission UNIFIL.[227] Italy is one of the largest financiers of the Palestinian National Authority, contributing €60 million in 2013 alone.[228]

Military

Examples of Italy's military. Clockwise from top left: aircraft carrier MM Cavour; two Eurofighter Typhoons operated by the Italian Air Force; tank destroyer B1 Centauro; and Alpini from the Taurinense Brigade

The Italian Army, Navy, Air Force and Carabinieri collectively form the Italian Armed Forces, under the command of the Supreme Defence Council, presided over by the President of Italy. Since 2005, military service is voluntary.[229] In 2010, the Italian military had 293,202 personnel on active duty,[230] of which 114,778 are Carabinieri.[231] Total Italian military spending in 2010 ranked tenth in the world, standing at $35.8 billion, equal to 1.7% of national GDP. As part of NATO's nuclear sharing strategy Italy also hosts 90 United States B61 nuclear bombs, located in the Ghedi and Aviano air bases.[232]

The Italian Army is the national ground defence force, numbering 109,703 in 2008. Its best-known combat vehicles are the Dardo infantry fighting vehicle, the Centauro tank destroyer and the Ariete tank, and among its aircraft the Mangusta attack helicopter, in the last years deployed in EU, NATO and UN missions. It also has at its disposal many Leopard 1 and M113 armoured vehicles.

The Italian Navy in 2008 had 35,200 active personnel with 85 commissioned ships and 123 aircraft.[233] It is a blue-water navy. In modern times the Italian Navy, being a member of the EU and NATO, has taken part in many coalition peacekeeping operations around the world.

The Italian Air Force in 2008 had a strength of 43,882 and operated 585 aircraft, including 219 combat jets and 114 helicopters. A transport capability is guaranteed by a fleet of 27 C-130Js and C-27J Spartan.

An autonomous corps of the military, the Carabinieri are the gendarmerie and military police of Italy, policing the military and civilian population alongside Italy's other police forces. While the different branches of the Carabinieri report to separate ministries for each of their individual functions, the corps reports to the Ministry of Internal Affairs when maintaining public order and security.[234]

Constituent entities

Italy is constituted by 20 regions (regioni)—five of these regions having a special autonomous status that enables them to enact legislation on additional matters, 107 provinces (province) or metropolitan cities (città metropolitane), and 7,960 municipalities (comuni).[235]

Economy

Milan is a global financial centre and a fashion capital of the world.

Italy has a major advanced[238] capitalist mixed economy, ranking as the third-largest in the Eurozone and the eighth-largest in the world.[239] A founding member of the G7, the Eurozone and the OECD, it is regarded as one of the world's most industrialised nations and a leading country in world trade and exports.[240][241][242] It is a highly developed country, with the world's 8th highest quality of life in 2005[33] and the 26th Human Development Index. The country is well known for its creative and innovative business,[243] a large and competitive agricultural sector[244] (with the world's largest wine production),[245] and for its influential and high-quality automobile, machinery, food, design and fashion industry.[246][247][248]

A Ferrari 488 Pista (left) and a Lamborghini Hurácan (right). Italy maintains a large automotive industry,[249] and is the world's seventh largest exporter of goods.[250]

Italy is the world's sixth largest manufacturing country,[251] characterised by a smaller number of global multinational corporations than other economies of comparable size and many dynamic small and medium-sized enterprises, notoriously clustered in several industrial districts, which are the backbone of the Italian industry. This has produced a manufacturing sector often focused on the export of niche market and luxury products, that if on one side is less capable to compete on the quantity, on the other side is more capable of facing the competition from China and other emerging Asian economies based on lower labour costs, with higher quality products.[252] Italy was the world's 7th largest exporter in 2016. Its closest trade ties are with the other countries of the European Union, with whom it conducts about 59% of its total trade. Its largest EU trade partners, in order of market share, are Germany (12.9%), France (11.4%), and Spain (7.4%).[253]

Italy is part of a monetary union, the Eurozone (dark blue) and of the EU single market.

The automotive industry is a significant part of the Italian manufacturing sector, with over 144,000 firms and almost 485,000 employed people in 2015,[254] and a contribution of 8.5% to Italian GDP.[255] Fiat Chrysler Automobiles or FCA is currently the world's seventh-largest auto maker.[256] The country boasts a wide range of acclaimed products, from very compact city cars to luxury supercars such as Maserati, Lamborghini, and Ferrari, which was rated the world's most powerful brand by Brand Finance.[257]

Italy is part of the European single market which represents more than 500 million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union (EU) members and by EU legislation. Italy introduced the common European currency, the Euro in 2002.[258][259] It is a member of the Eurozone which represents around 330 million citizens. Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank.

Italy has been hit hard by the Financial crisis of 2007–08, that exacerbated the country's structural problems.[260] Effectively, after a strong GDP growth of 5–6% per year from the 1950s to the early 1970s,[261] and a progressive slowdown in the 1980-90s, the country virtually stagnated in the 2000s.[262][263] The political efforts to revive growth with massive government spending eventually produced a severe rise in public debt, that stood at over 131.8% of GDP in 2017,[264] ranking second in the EU only after the Greek one.[265] For all that, the largest chunk of Italian public debt is owned by national subjects, a major difference between Italy and Greece,[266] and the level of household debt is much lower than the OECD average.[267]

A gaping North–South divide is a major factor of socio-economic weakness.[268] It can be noted by the huge difference in statistical income between the northern and southern regions and municipalities.[269] The richest province, Alto Adige-South Tyrol, earns 152% of the national GDP per capita, while the poorest region, Calabria, 61%.[270] The unemployment rate (11.1%) stands slightly above the Eurozone average,[271] but the disaggregated figure is 6.6% in the North and 19.2% in the South.[272] The youth unemployment rate (31.7% in March 2018) is extremely high compared to EU standards.[273]

Italy has a strong cooperative sector, with the largest share of the population (4.5%) employed by a cooperative in the EU.[274]

Agriculture

Val d'Orcia, Tuscany (left) and vineyards in Langhe and Montferrat, Piedmont (right). Italy is the world's largest wine producer.

According to the last national agricultural census, there were 1.6 million farms in 2010 (−32.4% since 2000) covering 12.7 million hectares (63% of which are located in Southern Italy).[275] The vast majority (99%) are family-operated and small, averaging only 8 hectares in size.[275] Of the total surface area in agricultural use (forestry excluded), grain fields take up 31%, olive tree orchards 8.2%, vineyards 5.4%, citrus orchards 3.8%, sugar beets 1.7%, and horticulture 2.4%. The remainder is primarily dedicated to pastures (25.9%) and feed grains (11.6%).[275]

Italy is the world's largest wine producer,[276] and one of the leading in olive oil, fruits (apples, olives, grapes, oranges, lemons, pears, apricots, hazelnuts, peaches, cherries, plums, strawberries and kiwifruits), and vegetables (especially artichokes and tomatoes). The most famous Italian wines are probably the Tuscan Chianti and the Piedmontese Barolo. Other famous wines are Barbaresco, Barbera d'Asti, Brunello di Montalcino, Frascati, Montepulciano d'Abruzzo, Morellino di Scansano, and the sparkling wines Franciacorta and Prosecco.

Quality goods in which Italy specialises, particularly the already mentioned wines and regional cheeses, are often protected under the quality assurance labels DOC/DOP. This geographical indication certificate, which is attributed by the European Union, is considered important in order to avoid confusion with low-quality mass-produced ersatz products.

Infrastructure

FS' Frecciarossa 1000 high speed train, with a maximum speed of 400 km/h (249 mph),[277] is the fastest train in Europe.
Alitalia Airbus A330 at Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport

In 2004 the transport sector in Italy generated a turnover of about 119.4 billion euros, employing 935,700 persons in 153,700 enterprises. Regarding the national road network, in 2002 there were 668,721 km (415,524 mi) of serviceable roads in Italy, including 6,487 km (4,031 mi) of motorways, state-owned but privately operated by Atlantia. In 2005, about 34,667,000 passenger cars (590 cars per 1,000 people) and 4,015,000 goods vehicles circulated on the national road network.[278]

The national railway network, state-owned and operated by Rete Ferroviaria Italiana (FSI), in 2008 totalled 16,529 km (10,271 mi) of which 11,727 km (7,287 mi) is electrified, and on which 4,802 locomotives and railcars run. The main public operator of high-speed trains is Trenitalia, part of FSI. Higher-speed trains are divided into three categories: Frecciarossa (English: red arrow) trains operate at a maximum speed of 300 km/h on dedicated high-speed tracks; Frecciargento (English: silver arrow) trains operate at a maximum speed of 250 km/h on both high-speed and mainline tracks; and Frecciabianca (English: white arrow) trains operate on high-speed regional lines at a maximum speed of 200 km/h. Italy has 11 rail border crossings over the Alpine mountains with its neighbouring countries.

Italy is one of the countries with the most vehicles per capita, with 690 per 1000 people in 2010.[279] The national inland waterways network comprised 2,400 km (1,491 mi) of navigable rivers and channels for various types of commercial traffic in 2012.[280]

Italy's largest airline is Alitalia,[281] which serves 97 destinations (as of October 2019) and also operates a regional subsidiary under the Alitalia CityLiner brand. The country also has regional airlines (such as Air Dolomiti), low-cost carriers, and Charter and leisure carriers (including Neos, Blue Panorama Airlines and Poste Air Cargo. Major Italian cargo operators are Alitalia Cargo and Cargolux Italia.

Italy is the fifth in Europe by number of passengers by air transport, with about 148 million passengers or about 10% of the European total in 2011.[282] In 2012 there were 130 airports in Italy, including the two hubs of Malpensa International in Milan and Leonardo da Vinci International in Rome. In 2004 there were 43 major seaports, including the seaport of Genoa, the country's largest and second largest in the Mediterranean Sea. In 2005 Italy maintained a civilian air fleet of about 389,000 units and a merchant fleet of 581 ships.[278]

Trieste, the main port of the northern Adriatic and starting point of the Transalpine Pipeline.

Italy does not invest enough to maintain its drinking water supply. The Galli Law, passed in 1993, aimed at raising the level of investment and to improve service quality by consolidating service providers, making them more efficient and increasing the level of cost recovery through tariff revenues. Despite these reforms, investment levels have declined and remain far from sufficient.[283][284][285]

Italy has been the final destination of the Silk Road for many centuries. In particular, the construction of the Suez Canal intensified sea trade with East Africa and Asia from the 19th century. Since the end of the Cold War and increasing European integration, the trade relations, which were often interrupted in the 20th century, have intensified again and the northern Italian ports such as the deep-water port of Trieste in the northernmost part of the Mediterranean with its extensive rail connections to Central and Eastern Europe are once again the destination of government subsidies and significant foreign investment.[286][287][288][289][290][291]

Energy

ENI is one of the world's largest industrial companies and among the oil and gas "Supermajors".[292][293]

Eni, with operations in 79 countries, is one of the seven "Supermajor" oil companies in the world, and one of the world's largest industrial companies.[292] The Val d'Agri area, Basilicata, hosts the largest onshore hydrocarbon field in Europe.[294]

Moderate natural gas reserves, mainly in the Po Valley and offshore Adriatic Sea, have been discovered in recent years and constitute the country's most important mineral resource.

Italy is one of the world's leading producers of pumice, pozzolana, and feldspar.[295] Another notable mineral resource is marble, especially the world-famous white Carrara marble from the Massa and Carrara quarries in Tuscany. Italy needs to import about 80% of its energy requirements.[296][297][298]

Solar panels in Piombino. Italy is one of the world's largest producers of renewable energy.[299]

In the last decade, Italy has become one of the world's largest producers of renewable energy, ranking as the second largest producer in the European Union and the ninth in the world. Wind power, hydroelectricity, and geothermal power are also important sources of electricity in the country. Renewable sources account for the 27.5% of all electricity produced in Italy, with hydro alone reaching 12.6%, followed by solar at 5.7%, wind at 4.1%, bioenergy at 3.5%, and geothermal at 1.6%.[300] The rest of the national demand is covered by fossil fuels (38.2% natural gas, 13% coal, 8.4% oil) and by imports.[300]

Solar energy production alone accounted for almost 9% of the total electric production in the country in 2014, making Italy the country with the highest contribution from solar energy in the world.[299] The Montalto di Castro Photovoltaic Power Station, completed in 2010, is the largest photovoltaic power station in Italy with 85 MW. Other examples of large PV plants in Italy are San Bellino (70.6 MW), Cellino san Marco (42.7 MW) and Sant’ Alberto (34.6 MW).[301] Italy was also the first country to exploit geothermal energy to produce electricity.[191]

Italy has managed four nuclear reactors until the 1980s. However, nuclear power in Italy has been abandoned following a 1987 referendum (in the wake of the 1986 Chernobyl disaster in Soviet Ukraine). The national power company Enel operates several nuclear reactors in Spain, Slovakia and France,[302][303] managing it to access nuclear power and direct involvement in design, construction, and operation of the plants without placing reactors on Italian territory.[303]

Science and technology

Clockwise from top: Alessandro Volta, inventor of the electric battery and discoverer of methane;[304] Galileo Galilei, recognised as the Father of modern science, physics and observational astronomy;[305] Guglielmo Marconi, inventor of the long-distance radio transmission;[306] Enrico Fermi, creator of the first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1[307]

Through the centuries, Italy has fostered the scientific community that produced many major discoveries in physics and the other sciences. During the Renaissance Italian polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519), Michelangelo (1475–1564) and Leon Battista Alberti (1404–1472) made important contributions to a variety of fields, including biology, architecture, and engineering. Galileo Galilei (1564–1642), a physicist, mathematician and astronomer, played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include key improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations, and ultimately the triumph of Copernicanism over the Ptolemaic model.

Other astronomers suchs as Giovanni Domenico Cassini (1625–1712) and Giovanni Schiaparelli (1835–1910) made many important discoveries about the Solar System. In mathematics, Joseph Louis Lagrange (born Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia, 1736–1813) was active before leaving Italy. Fibonacci (c. 1170 – c. 1250), and Gerolamo Cardano (1501–1576) made fundamental advances in mathematics. Luca Pacioli established accounting to the world. Physicist Enrico Fermi (1901–1954), a Nobel prize laureate, led the team in Chicago that developed the first nuclear reactor and is also noted for his many other contributions to physics, including the co-development of the quantum theory and was one of the key figures in the creation of the nuclear weapon. He, Emilio G. Segrè (1905–1989) who discovered the elements technetium and astatine, and the antiproton), Bruno Rossi (1905–1993) a pioneer in Cosmic Rays and X-ray astronomy) and a number of Italian physicists were forced to leave Italy in the 1930s by Fascist laws against Jews.[308]

Other prominent physicists include: Amedeo Avogadro (most noted for his contributions to molecular theory, in particular the Avogadro's law and the Avogadro constant), Evangelista Torricelli (inventor of barometer), Alessandro Volta (inventor of electric battery), Guglielmo Marconi (inventor of radio), Galileo Ferraris and Antonio Pacinotti, pioneers of the induction motor, Alessandro Cruto, pioneer of light bulb and Innocenzo Manzetti, eclectic pioneer of auto and robotics, Ettore Majorana (who discovered the Majorana fermions), Carlo Rubbia (1984 Nobel Prize in Physics for work leading to the discovery of the W and Z particles at CERN). Antonio Meucci is known for developing a voice-communication device which is often credited as the first telephone.[309][310] Pier Giorgio Perotto in 1964 designed one of the first desktop programmable calculators, the Programma 101.[311][312][313] In biology, Francesco Redi has been the first to challenge the theory of spontaneous generation by demonstrating that maggots come from eggs of flies and he described 180 parasites in details and Marcello Malpighi founded microscopic anatomy, Lazzaro Spallanzani conducted important research in bodily functions, animal reproduction, and cellular theory, Camillo Golgi, whose many achievements include the discovery of the Golgi complex, paved the way to the acceptance of the Neuron doctrine, Rita Levi-Montalcini discovered the nerve growth factor (awarded 1986 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine). In chemistry, Giulio Natta received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1963 for his work on high polymers. Giuseppe Occhialini received the Wolf Prize in Physics for the discovery of the pion or pi-meson decay in 1947. Ennio de Giorgi, a Wolf Prize in Mathematics recipient in 1990, solved Bernstein's problem about minimal surfaces and the 19th Hilbert problem on the regularity of solutions of Elliptic partial differential equations.

There are numerous technology parks in Italy such as the Science and Technology Parks Kilometro Rosso (Bergamo), the AREA Science Park (Trieste), The VEGA-Venice Gateway for Science and Technology (Venezia), the Toscana Life Sciences (Siena), the Technology Park of Lodi Cluster (Lodi), and the Technology Park of Navacchio (Pisa).[314] ELETTRA, Eurac Research, ESA Centre for Earth Observation, Institute for Scientific Interchange, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation and the International Centre for Theoretical Physics conduct basic research. Trieste has the highest percentage of researchers in Europe in relation to the population.[315]

Tourism

The Amalfi Coast is one of Italy's major tourist destinations.[316]

Italy is the fifth most visited country in the world, with a total of 52.3 million international arrivals in 2016.[317] The total contribution of travel & tourism to GDP (including wider effects from investment, the supply chain and induced income impacts) was EUR162.7bn in 2014 (10.1% of GDP) and generated 1,082,000 jobs directly in 2014 (4.8% of total employment).[318]

Italy is well known for its cultural and environmental tourist routes and is home to 55 UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[319] Rome is the 3rd most visited city in Europe and the 12th in the world, with 9.4 million arrivals in 2017 while Milan is the 27th worldwide with 6.8 million tourists.[320] In addition, Venice and Florence are also among the world's top 100 destinations.

Demographics

Map of Italy's population density as of the 2011 census

At the beginning of 2020, Italy had 60,317,116 inhabitants.[4] The resulting population density, at 202 inhabitants per square kilometre (520/sq mi), is higher than that of most Western European countries. However, the distribution of the population is widely uneven. The most densely populated areas are the Po Valley (that accounts for almost a half of the national population) and the metropolitan areas of Rome and Naples, while vast regions such as the Alps and Apennines highlands, the plateaus of Basilicata and the island of Sardinia, as well as much of Sicily, are very sparsely populated.

The population of Italy almost doubled during the 20th century, but the pattern of growth was extremely uneven because of large-scale internal migration from the rural South to the industrial cities of the North, a phenomenon which happened as a consequence of the Italian economic miracle of the 1950–1960s. High fertility and birth rates persisted until the 1970s, after which they started to decline. The population rapidly aged; by 2010, one in five Italians was over 65 years old, and the country currently has the fifth oldest population in the world, with a median age of 46.5 years.[321][322] However, in recent years Italy has experienced significant growth in birth rates.[323] The total fertility rate has also climbed from an all-time low of 1.18 children per woman in 1995 to 1.41 in 2008,[324] albeit still below the replacement rate of 2.1 and considerably below the high of 5.06 children born per woman in 1883.[325] Nevertheless, the total fertility rate is expected to reach 1.6–1.8 in 2030.[326]

From the late 19th century until the 1960s Italy was a country of mass emigration. Between 1898 and 1914, the peak years of Italian diaspora, approximately 750,000 Italians emigrated each year.[327] The diaspora concerned more than 25 million Italians and it is considered the biggest mass migration of contemporary times.[328] As a result, today more than 4.1 million Italian citizens are living abroad,[329] while at least 60 million people of full or part Italian ancestry live outside of Italy, most notably in Argentina,[330], Brazil[331], Uruguay,[332] Venezuela,[333] the United States,[334] Canada,[335] Australia[336] and France.[337]


Metropolitan cities and larger urban zone

Source:[338][339]

Immigration

Italy is home to a large population of migrants from Eastern Europe and North Africa.

In 2016, Italy had about 5.05 million foreign residents,[340] making up 8.3% of the total population. The figures include more than half a million children born in Italy to foreign nationals (second generation immigrants) but exclude foreign nationals who have subsequently acquired Italian citizenship;[341] in 2016, about 201,000 people became Italian citizens,[342] compared to 130,000 in 2014.[343] The official figures also exclude illegal immigrants, who estimated to number at least 670,000 as of 2008.[344]

Starting from the early 1980s, until then a linguistically and culturally homogeneous society, Italy begun to attract substantial flows of foreign immigrants.[345] After the fall of the Berlin Wall and, more recently, the 2004 and 2007 enlargements of the European Union, large waves of migration originated from the former socialist countries of Eastern Europe (especially Romania, Albania, Ukraine and Poland). An equally important source of immigration is neighbouring North Africa (in particular, Morocco, Egypt and Tunisia), with soaring arrivals as a consequence of the Arab Spring. Furthermore, in recent years, growing migration fluxes from Asia-Pacific (notably China[346] and the Philippines) and Latin America have been recorded.

Currently, about one million Romanian citizens (around 10% of them being ethnic Romani people[347]) are officially registered as living in Italy, representing thus the most important individual country of origin, followed by Albanians and Moroccans with about 500,000 people each. The number of unregistered Romanians is difficult to estimate, but the Balkan Investigative Reporting Network suggested in 2007 that there might have been half a million or more.[348][note 2]

As of 2010, the foreign born population of Italy was from the following regions: Europe (54%), Africa (22%), Asia (16%), the Americas (8%) and Oceania (0.06%). The distribution of immigrants is largely uneven in Italy: 87% live in the northern and central parts of the country (the most economically developed areas), while only 13% live in the southern half.

Languages

Geographic distribution of the Italian language in the world:
  Official language status
  Former official language status
  Presence of Italian-speaking communities

Italy's official language is Italian, as stated by the framework law no. 482/1999[350] and Trentino Alto-Adige's special Statute,[351] which is adopted with a constitutional law. Around the world there are an estimated 64 million native Italian speakers[352][353][354] and another 21 million who use it as a second language.[355] Italian is often natively spoken in a regional variety, not to be confused with Italy's regional and minority languages;[356][357] however, the establishment of a national education system led to a decrease in variation in the languages spoken across the country during the 20th century. Standardisation was further expanded in the 1950s and 1960s due to economic growth and the rise of mass media and television (the state broadcaster RAI helped set a standard Italian).

The ethno-linguistic minorities officially recognised by Italy[358]

Twelve "historical minority languages" (minoranze linguistiche storiche) are formally recognised: Albanian, Catalan, German, Greek, Slovene, Croatian, French, Franco-Provençal, Friulian, Ladin, Occitan and Sardinian.[350] Four of these also enjoy a co-official status in their respective region: French in the Aosta Valley;[359] German in South Tyrol, and Ladin as well in some parts of the same province and in parts of the neighbouring Trentino;[360] and Slovene in the provinces of Trieste, Gorizia and Udine.[361] A number of other Ethnologue, ISO and UNESCO languages are not recognised by Italian law. Like France, Italy has signed the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, but has not ratified it.[362]

Because of recent immigration, Italy has sizeable populations whose native language is not Italian, nor a regional language. According to the Italian National Institute of Statistics, Romanian is the most common mother tongue among foreign residents in Italy: almost 800,000 people speak Romanian as their first language (21.9% of the foreign residents aged 6 and over). Other prevalent mother tongues are Arabic (spoken by over 475,000 people; 13.1% of foreign residents), Albanian (380,000 people) and Spanish (255,000 people).[363]

Religion

Italy is home to many of the world's largest, oldest and opulent churches. Clockwise from left: Florence Cathedral, which has the biggest brick dome in the world;[364][365] St. Peter's Basilica, the largest church of Christendom;[366] Milan Cathedral, the largest Italian church and the third largest in the world; and St Mark's Basilica, one of the best known examples of Italo-Byzantine architecture[367]

In 2017, the proportion of Italians who identified themselves as Roman Catholic Christians was 74.4%.[368] Since 1985, Roman Catholicism is no longer officially the state religion.[369] Italy has the fifth world's largest Roman Catholic population, and the largest Catholic nation in Europe.[370]

The Holy See, the episcopal jurisdiction of Rome, contains the central government of the Roman Catholic Church. It is recognised by other subjects of international law as a sovereign entity, headed by the Pope, who is also the Bishop of Rome, with which diplomatic relations can be maintained.[371][372] Often incorrectly referred to as "the Vatican", the Holy See is not the same entity as the Vatican City State,[clarification needed] which came into existence only in 1929.

In 2011, minority Christian faiths in Italy included an estimated 1.5 million Orthodox Christians, or 2.5% of the population;[373] 500,000 Pentecostals and Evangelicals (of whom 400,000 are members of the Assemblies of God), 251,192 Jehovah's Witnesses,[374] 30,000 Waldensians,[375] 25,000 Seventh-day Adventists, 26,925 Latter-day Saints, 15,000 Baptists (plus some 5,000 Free Baptists), 7,000 Lutherans, 4,000 Methodists (affiliated with the Waldensian Church).[376]

One of the longest-established minority religious faiths in Italy is Judaism, Jews having been present in Ancient Rome since before the birth of Christ. Italy has for centuries welcomed Jews expelled from other countries, notably Spain. However, about 20% of Italian Jews were killed during the Holocaust.[377] This, together with the emigration which preceded and followed World War II, has left only around 28,400 Jews in Italy.[378]

Soaring immigration in the last two decades has been accompanied by an increase in non-Christian faiths. There are more than 800,000 followers of faiths originating in the Indian subcontinent with some 70,000 Sikhs with 22 gurdwaras across the country.[380][clarification needed]

The Italian state, as a measure to protect religious freedom, devolves shares of income tax to recognised religious communities, under a regime known as Eight per thousand. Donations are allowed to Christian, Jewish, Buddhist and Hindu communities; however, Islam remains excluded, since no Muslim communities have yet signed a concordat with the Italian state.[381] Taxpayers who do not wish to fund a religion contribute their share to the state welfare system.[382]

Education

Bologna University, established in AD 1088, is the world's oldest academic institution.

Education in Italy is free and mandatory from ages six to sixteen,[383] and consists of five stages: kindergarten (scuola dell'infanzia), primary school (scuola primaria), lower secondary school (scuola secondaria di primo grado, upper secondary school (scuola secondaria di secondo grado) and university (università).[384]

Primary education lasts eight years. Students are given a basic education in Italian, English, mathematics, natural sciences, history, geography, social studies, physical education and visual and musical arts. Secondary education lasts for five years and includes three traditional types of schools focused on different academic levels: the liceo prepares students for university studies with a classical or scientific curriculum, while the istituto tecnico and the Istituto professionale prepare pupils for vocational education. In 2018, the Italian secondary education was evaluated as below the OECD average.[385] A wide gap exists between northern schools, which perform better than average, and schools in the South, that had much poorer results.[386]

Tertiary education in Italy is divided between public universities, private universities and the prestigious and selective superior graduate schools, such as the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. 33 Italian universities were ranked among the world's top 500 in 2019, the third-largest number in Europe after the United Kingdom and Germany.[387] Bologna University, founded in 1088, is the oldest university in continuous operation,[388] as well as one of the leading academic institutions in Italy and Europe.[389] The Bocconi University, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, LUISS, Polytechnic University of Turin, Polytechnic University of Milan, Sapienza University of Rome, and University of Milan are also ranked among the best in the world.[390]

Health

Olive oil and vegetables are central to the Mediterranean diet.[391]

The Italian state runs a universal public healthcare system since 1978.[392] However, healthcare is provided to all citizens and residents by a mixed public-private system. The public part is the Servizio Sanitario Nazionale, which is organised under the Ministry of Health and administered on a devolved regional basis. Healthcare spending in Italy accounted for 9.2% of the national GDP in 2012, very close the OECD countries' average of 9.3%.[393] Italy in 2000 ranked as having the world's 2nd best healthcare system,[392][394] and the world's 2nd best healthcare performance.

Life expectancy in Italy is 80 for males and 85 for females, placing the country 5th in the world for life expectancy.[395] In comparison to other Western countries, Italy has a relatively low rate of adult obesity (below 10%[396]), as there are several health benefits of the Mediterranean diet.[397] The proportion of daily smokers was 22% in 2012, down from 24.4% in 2000 but still slightly above the OECD average.[393] Smoking in public places including bars, restaurants, night clubs and offices has been restricted to specially ventilated rooms since 2005.[398] In 2013, UNESCO added the Mediterranean diet to the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity of Italy (promoter), Morocco, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Cyprus and Croatia.[399][400]

North-South gap

In the decades following the unification of Italy, the northern regions of the country, Lombardy, Piedmont and Liguria in particular, began a process of industrialization and economic development while the southern regions remained behind. Due to the growing economic and social gap, the southern question is beginning to be talked about[401] The imbalance between North and South, which widened steadily in the first post-unification century, was reduced in the sixties and seventies also through the construction of public works, the implementation of agrarian and scholastic reforms,[402] the expansion of industrialization and the improved living conditions of the population. This convergence process was interrupted, however, in the 1980s. To date, the per capita GDP of the South is just 58% of that of the Center-North,[403] while the unemployment rate is more than double (6.7% in the North against 14.9% in the South).[404]

A study by Censis attributes to the pervasive presence of criminal organizations an important role in the delay of Southern Italy, they estimate an annual loss of wealth of 2.5% in the South in the period 1981–2003 due to the presence of such organizations and evaluating that without of these, the per capita GDP of the South would have reached that of the North.[405]

Culture

Carnival of Venice

Italy is considered one of the birthplaces of western civilization and a cultural superpower.[406] Divided by politics and geography for centuries until its eventual unification in 1861, Italy's culture has been shaped by a multitude of regional customs and local centres of power and patronage.[407] Italy has had a central role in Western culture for centuries and is still recognised for its cultural traditions and artists. During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, a number of magnificent courts competed for attracting the best architects, artists and scholars, thus producing a great legacy of monuments, paintings, music and literature. Despite the political and social isolation of these courts, Italy's contribution to the cultural and historical heritage of Europe and the world remain immense.[408]

Italy has rich collections of art, culture and literature from many periods. The country has had a broad cultural influence worldwide, also because numerous Italians emigrated to other places during the Italian diaspora. Furthermore, Italy has, overall, an estimated 100,000 monuments of any sort (museums, palaces, buildings, statues, churches, art galleries, villas, fountains, historic houses and archaeological remains),[409] and according to some estimates the nation is home to half the world's great art treasures.[410]

Architecture

The city of Venice, built on 117 islands
The Duomo and the Leaning Tower of Pisa

Italy is known for its considerable architectural achievements,[411] such as the construction of arches, domes and similar structures during ancient Rome, the founding of the Renaissance architectural movement in the late-14th to 16th centuries, and being the homeland of Palladianism, a style of construction which inspired movements such as that of Neoclassical architecture, and influenced the designs which noblemen built their country houses all over the world, notably in the UK, Australia and the US during the late 17th to early 20th centuries.

Along with pre-historic architecture, the first people in Italy to truly begin a sequence of designs were the Greeks and the Etruscans, progressing to classical Roman,[412] then to the revival of the classical Roman era during the Renaissance and evolving into the Baroque era. The Christian concept of a Basilica, a style of church architecture that came to dominate the early Middle Ages, was invented in Rome. They were known for being long, rectangular buildings, which were built in an almost ancient Roman style, often rich in mosaics and decorations. The early Christians' art and architecture was also widely inspired by that of the pagan Romans; statues, mosaics and paintings decorated all their churches.[413] The first significant buildings in the medieval Romanesque style were churches built in Italy during the 800's. Byzantine architecture was also widely diffused in Italy. The Byzantines kept Roman principles of architecture and art alive, and the most famous structure from this period is the Basilica of St. Mark in Venice.

Castel del Monte, Apulia
The Royal Palace of Caserta

The Romanesque movement, which went from approximately 800 AD to 1100 AD, was one of the most fruitful and creative periods in Italian architecture, when several masterpieces, such as the Leaning Tower of Pisa in the Piazza dei Miracoli, and the Basilica of Sant'Ambrogio in Milan were built. It was known for its usage of the Roman arches, stained glass windows, and also its curved columns which commonly featured in cloisters. The main innovation of Italian Romanesque architecture was the vault, which had never been seen before in the history of Western architecture.[414]

The greatest flowering of Italian architecture took place during the Renaissance. Filippo Brunelleschi made great contributions to architectural design with his dome for the Cathedral of Florence, a feat of engineering that had not been accomplished since antiquity.[415] A popular achievement of Italian Renaissance architecture was St. Peter's Basilica, originally designed by Donato Bramante in the early 16th century. Also, Andrea Palladio influenced architects throughout western Europe with the villas and palaces he designed in the middle and late 16th century; the city of Vicenza, with its twenty-three buildings designed by Palladio, and twenty-four Palladian Villas of the Veneto are listed by UNESCO as part of a World Heritage Site named City of Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto.[416]

The Baroque period produced several outstanding Italian architects in the 17th century, especially known for their churches. The most original work of all late Baroque and Rococo architecture is the Palazzina di caccia di Stupinigi, dating back to the 18th century.[417] Luigi Vanvitelli began in 1752 the construction of the Royal Palace of Caserta. In this large complex, the grandiose Baroque style interiors and gardens are opposed to a more sober building envelope.[418] In the late 18th and early 19th centuries Italy was affected by the Neoclassical architectural movement. Everything from villas, palaces, gardens, interiors and art began to be based on Roman and Greek themes.[419]

During the Fascist period, the so-called "Novecento movement" flourished, based on the rediscovery of imperial Rome, with figures such as Gio Ponti and Giovanni Muzio. Marcello Piacentini, responsible for the urban transformations of several cities in Italy and remembered for the disputed Via della Conciliazione in Rome, devised a form of simplified Neoclassicism.[420]

Visual art

The Last Supper (1494–1499), Leonardo da Vinci, Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan

The history of Italian visual arts is significant to the history of Western painting. Roman art was influenced by Greece and can in part be taken as a descendant of ancient Greek painting. Roman painting does have its own unique characteristics. The only surviving Roman paintings are wall paintings, many from villas in Campania, in Southern Italy. Such paintings can be grouped into four main "styles" or periods[421] and may contain the first examples of trompe-l'œil, pseudo-perspective, and pure landscape.[422]

Panel painting becomes more common during the Romanesque period, under the heavy influence of Byzantine icons. Towards the middle of the 13th century, Medieval art and Gothic painting became more realistic, with the beginnings of interest in the depiction of volume and perspective in Italy with Cimabue and then his pupil Giotto. From Giotto onwards, the treatment of composition by the best painters also became much more free and innovative. The two are considered to be the two great medieval masters of painting in western culture.

Michelangelo's David (1501–1504), Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence

The Italian Renaissance is said by many to be the golden age of painting; roughly spanning the 14th through the mid-17th centuries with a significant influence also out of the borders of modern Italy. In Italy artists like Paolo Uccello, Fra Angelico, Masaccio, Piero della Francesca, Andrea Mantegna, Filippo Lippi, Giorgione, Tintoretto, Sandro Botticelli, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Raphael, Giovanni Bellini, and Titian took painting to a higher level through the use of perspective, the study of human anatomy and proportion, and through their development of an unprecedented refinement in drawing and painting techniques. Michelangelo was an active sculptor from about 1500 to 1520, and his great masterpieces including his David, Pietà, Moses. Other prominent Renaissance sculptors include Lorenzo Ghiberti, Luca Della Robbia, Donatello, Filippo Brunelleschi and Andrea del Verrocchio.

In the 15th and 16th centuries, the High Renaissance gave rise to a stylised art known as Mannerism. In place of the balanced compositions and rational approach to perspective that characterised art at the dawn of the 16th century, the Mannerists sought instability, artifice, and doubt. The unperturbed faces and gestures of Piero della Francesca and the calm Virgins of Raphael are replaced by the troubled expressions of Pontormo and the emotional intensity of El Greco.

The Birth of Venus (1484–1486), Sandro Botticelli, Uffizi Gallery, Florence

In the 17th century, among the greatest painters of Italian Baroque are Caravaggio, Annibale Carracci, Artemisia Gentileschi, Mattia Preti, Carlo Saraceni and Bartolomeo Manfredi. Subsequently, in the 18th century, Italian Rococo was mainly inspired by French Rococo, since France was the founding nation of that particular style, with artists such as Giovanni Battista Tiepolo and Canaletto. Italian Neoclassical sculpture focused, with Antonio Canova's nudes, on the idealist aspect of the movement.

In the 19th century, major Italian Romantic painters were Francesco Hayez, Giuseppe Bezzuoli and Francesco Podesti. Impressionism was brought from France to Italy by the Macchiaioli, led by Giovanni Fattori, and Giovanni Boldini; Realism by Gioacchino Toma and Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo. In the 20th century, with Futurism, primarily through the works of Umberto Boccioni and Giacomo Balla, Italy rose again as a seminal country for artistic evolution in painting and sculpture. Futurism was succeeded by the metaphysical paintings of Giorgio de Chirico, who exerted a strong influence on the Surrealists and generations of artists to follow like Bruno Caruso and Renato Guttuso.

Literature

Formal Latin literature began in 240 BC, when the first stage play was performed in Rome.[423] Latin literature was, and still is, highly influential in the world, with numerous writers, poets, philosophers, and historians, such as Pliny the Elder, Pliny the Younger, Virgil, Horace, Propertius, Ovid and Livy. The Romans were also famous for their oral tradition, poetry, drama and epigrams.[424] In early years of the 13th century, St. Francis of Assisi was considered the first Italian poet by literary critics, with his religious song Canticle of the Sun.[425]

Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the mount of Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelino's fresco, 1465

Another Italian voice originated in Sicily. At the court of Emperor Frederick II, who ruled the Sicilian kingdom during the first half of the 13th century, lyrics modelled on Provençal forms and themes were written in a refined version of the local vernacular. The most important of these poets was the notary Giacomo da Lentini, inventor of the sonnet form, though the most famous early sonneteer was Petrarch.[426]

Guido Guinizelli is considered the founder of the Dolce Stil Novo, a school that added a philosophical dimension to traditional love poetry. This new understanding of love, expressed in a smooth, pure style, influenced Guido Cavalcanti and the Florentine poet Dante Alighieri, who established the basis of the modern Italian language; his greatest work, the Divine Comedy, is considered among the foremost literary statements produced in Europe during the Middle Ages; furthermore, the poet invented the difficult terza rima. The two great writers of the 14th century, Petrarch and Giovanni Boccaccio, sought out and imitated the works of antiquity and cultivated their own artistic personalities. Petrarch achieved fame through his collection of poems, Il Canzoniere. Petrarch's love poetry served as a model for centuries. Equally influential was Boccaccio's The Decameron, one of the most popular collections of short stories ever written.[427]

Niccolò Machiavelli, founder of modern political science and ethics

Italian Renaissance authors produced a number of important works. Niccolò Machiavelli's The Prince is one of the world's most famous essays on political science and modern philosophy, in which the "effectual truth" is taken to be more important than any abstract ideal. Another important work of the period, Ludovico Ariosto's Orlando Furioso, continuation of Matteo Maria Boiardo's unfinished romance Orlando Innamorato, is perhaps the greatest chivalry poem ever written. Baldassare Castiglione's dialogue The Book of the Courtier describes the ideal of the perfect court gentleman and of spiritual beauty. The lyric poet Torquato Tasso in Jerusalem Delivered wrote a Christian epic, making use of the ottava rima, with attention to the Aristotelian canons of unity.

Giovanni Francesco Straparola and Giambattista Basile, which have written The Facetious Nights of Straparola (1550–1555) and the Pentamerone (1634) respectively, printed some of the first known versions of fairy tales in Europe.[428][429][430] In the early 17th century, some literary masterpieces were created, such as Giambattista Marino's long mythological poem, L'Adone. The Baroque period also produced the clear scientific prose of Galileo as well as Tommaso Campanella's The City of the Sun, a description of a perfect society ruled by a philosopher-priest. At the end of the 17th century, the Arcadians began a movement to restore simplicity and classical restraint to poetry, as in Metastasio's heroic melodramas. In the 18th century, playwright Carlo Goldoni created full written plays, many portraying the middle class of his day.

Pinocchio is the world's most translated non-religious book[431] and a canonical piece of children's literature.[432]

The Romanticism coincided with some ideas of the Risorgimento, the patriotic movement that brought Italy political unity and freedom from foreign domination. Italian writers embraced Romanticism in the early 19th century. The time of Italy's rebirth was heralded by the poets Vittorio Alfieri, Ugo Foscolo, and Giacomo Leopardi. The works by Alessandro Manzoni, the leading Italian Romantic, are a symbol of the Italian unification for their patriotic message and because of his efforts in the development of the modern, unified Italian language; his novel The Betrothed was the first Italian historical novel to glorify Christian values of justice and Providence, and it has been called the most famous and widely read novel in the Italian language.[433]

In the late 19th century, a realistic literary movement called Verismo played a major role in Italian literature; Giovanni Verga and Luigi Capuana were its main exponents. In the same period, Emilio Salgari, writer of action-adventure swashbucklers and a pioneer of science fiction, published his Sandokan series.[434] In 1883, Carlo Collodi also published the novel The Adventures of Pinocchio, the most celebrated children's classic by an Italian author and the most translated non-religious book in the world.[431] A movement called Futurism influenced Italian literature in the early 20th century. Filippo Tommaso Marinetti wrote Manifesto of Futurism, called for the use of language and metaphors that glorified the speed, dynamism, and violence of the machine age.[435]

Modern literary figures and Nobel laureates are Gabriele D'Annunzio from 1889 to 1910, nationalist poet Giosuè Carducci in 1906, realist writer Grazia Deledda in 1926, modern theatre author Luigi Pirandello in 1936, short stories writer Italo Calvino in 1960, poets Salvatore Quasimodo in 1959 and Eugenio Montale in 1975, Umberto Eco in 1980, and satirist and theatre author Dario Fo in 1997.[436]

Philosophy

Over the ages, Italian philosophy and literature had a vast influence on Western philosophy, beginning with the Greeks and Romans, and going onto Renaissance humanism, the Age of Enlightenment and modern philosophy.[437] Philosophy was brought to Italy by Pythagoras, founder of the Italian school of philosophy in Crotone.[438] Major Italian philosophers of the Greek period include Xenophanes, Parmenides, Zeno, Empedocles and Gorgias. Roman philosophers include Cicero, Lucretius, Seneca the Younger, Musonius Rufus, Plutarch, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius, Clement of Alexandria, Sextus Empiricus, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Plotinus, Porphyry, Iamblichus, Augustine of Hippo, Philoponus of Alexandria and Boethius.[437]

Clockwise from top left: Thomas Aquinas, proponent of natural theology and the Father of Thomism;[439] Giordano Bruno, one of the major scientific figures of the Western world;[440] Cesare Beccaria, considered the Father of criminal justice and modern criminal law;[441] Maria Montessori, credited with the creation of the Montessori education.[442]

Italian Medieval philosophy was mainly Christian, and included several important philosophers and theologians such as St Thomas Aquinas, the foremost classical proponent of natural theology and the father of Thomism, who reintroduced Aristotelian philosophy to Christianity.[443] Notable Renaissance philosophers include: Giordano Bruno, one of the major scientific figures of the western world; Marsilio Ficino, one of the most influential humanist philosophers of the period; and Niccolò Machiavelli, one of the main founders of modern political science. Machiavelli's most famous work was The Prince, whose contribution to the history of political thought is the fundamental break between political realism and political idealism.[444] Italy was also affected by the Enlightenment, a movement which was a consequence of the Renaissance.[445] Cities with important universities such as Padua, Bologna and Naples remained great centres of scholarship and the intellect, with several philosophers such as Giambattista Vico (who is widely regarded as being the founder of modern Italian philosophy)[446] and Antonio Genovesi.[445] Cesare Beccaria was also one of the greatest Italian Enlightenment writers and is now considered one of the fathers of classical criminal theory as well as modern penology.[441] Beccaria is famous for his On Crimes and Punishments (1764), a treatise that served as one of the earliest prominent condemnations of torture and the death penalty and thus a landmark work in anti-death penalty philosophy.[445]

Italy also had a renowned philosophical movement in the 1800s, with Idealism, Sensism and Empiricism. The main Sensist Italian philosophers were Melchiorre Gioja and Gian Domenico Romagnosi.[446] Criticism of the Sensist movement came from other philosophers such as Pasquale Galluppi (1770–1846), who affirmed that a priori relationships were synthetic.[446] Antonio Rosmini, instead, was the founder of Italian Idealism. During the late 19th and 20th centuries, there were also several other movements which gained some form of popularity in Italy, such as Ontologism (whose main philosopher was Vincenzo Gioberti),[447] anarchism, communism, socialism, futurism, fascism and Christian democracy. Giovanni Gentile and Benedetto Croce were two of the most significant 20th-century Idealist philosophers. Anarcho-communism first fully formed into its modern strain within the Italian section of the First International.[448] Antonio Gramsci remains an important philosopher within Marxist and communist theory, credited with creating the theory of cultural hegemony. Italian philosophers were also influential in the development of the non-Marxist liberal socialism philosophy, including Carlo Rosselli, Norberto Bobbio, Piero Gobetti and Aldo Capitini. In the 1960s, many Italian left-wing activists adopted the anti-authoritarian pro-working class leftist theories that would become known as autonomism and operaismo.[449]

Early and important Italian feminists include Sibilla Aleramo, Alaide Gualberta Beccari, and Anna Maria Mozzoni, though proto-feminist philosophies had previously been touched upon by earlier Italian writers such as Christine de Pizan, Moderata Fonte, and Lucrezia Marinella. Italian physician and educator Maria Montessori is credited with the creation of the philosophy of education that bears her name, an educational philosophy now practiced throughout the world.[442] Giuseppe Peano was one of the founders of analytic philosophy and contemporary philosophy of mathematics. Recent analytic philosophers include Carlo Penco, Gloria Origgi, Pieranna Garavaso and Luciano Floridi.[437]

Theatre

La Scala opera house

Italian theatre can be traced back to the Roman tradition. The theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, and acrobatics, to the staging of Plautus's broadly appealing situation comedies, to the high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies of Seneca. Although Rome had a native tradition of performance, the Hellenization of Roman culture in the 3rd century BCE had a profound and energising effect on Roman theatre and encouraged the development of Latin literature of the highest quality for the stage. As with many other literary genres, Roman dramatists was heavily influenced or tended to adapt from the Greek. For example, Seneca's Phaedra was based on that of Euripides, and many of the comedies of Plautus were direct translations of works by Menander.[450]

Statues of Pantalone and Harlequin, two stock characters from the Commedia dell'arte, in the Museo Teatrale alla Scala

During the 16th century and on into the 18th century, Commedia dell'arte was a form of improvisational theatre, and it is still performed today. Travelling troupes of players would set up an outdoor stage and provide amusement in the form of juggling, acrobatics and, more typically, humorous plays based on a repertoire of established characters with a rough storyline, called canovaccio. Plays did not originate from written drama but from scenarios called lazzi, which were loose frameworks that provided the situations, complications, and outcome of the action, around which the actors would improvise. The characters of the commedia usually represent fixed social types and stock characters, each of which has a distinct costume, such as foolish old men, devious servants, or military officers full of false bravado. The main categories of these characters include servants, old men, lovers, and captains.[451]

The first recorded Commedia dell'arte performances came from Rome as early as 1551,[452] and was performed outdoors in temporary venues by professional actors who were costumed and masked, as opposed to commedia erudita, which were written comedies, presented indoors by untrained and unmasked actors.[453] By the mid-16th century, specific troupes of commedia performers began to coalesce, and by 1568 the Gelosi became a distinct company. Commedia often performed inside in court theatres or halls, and also as some fixed theatres such as Teatro Baldrucca in Florence. Flaminio Scala, who had been a minor performer in the Gelosi published the scenarios of the commedia dell'arte around the start of the 17th century, really in an effort to legitimize the form—and ensure its legacy. These scenari are highly structured and built around the symmetry of the various types in duet: two zanni, vecchi, inamorate and inamorati, among others.[454]

Dario Fo, one of the most widely performed playwrights in modern theatre, received international acclaim for his highly improvisational style.[455][456]

In commedia dell'arte, female roles were played by women, documented as early as the 1560s, making them the first known professional actresses in Europe since antiquity. Lucrezia Di Siena, whose name is on a contract of actors from 10 October 1564, has been referred to as the first Italian actress known by name, with Vincenza Armani and Barbara Flaminia as the first primadonnas and the first well documented actresses in Europe.[457]

The Ballet dance genre also originated in Italy. It began during the Italian Renaissance court as an outgrowth of court pageantry,[458] where aristocratic weddings were lavish celebrations. Court musicians and dancers collaborated to provide elaborate entertainment for them.[459] Domenico da Piacenza was one of the first dancing masters. Along with his students, Antonio Cornazzano and Guglielmo Ebreo, he was trained in dance and responsible for teaching nobles the art. Da Piacenza left one work: De arte saltandi et choreus ducendi (On the art of dancing and conducting dances), which was put together by his students.

At first, ballets were woven in to the midst of an opera to allow the audience a moment of relief from the dramatic intensity. By the mid-seventeenth century, Italian ballets in their entirety were performed in between the acts of an opera. Over time, Italian ballets became a more beloved and important part of theatrical life: ballet companies in Italy's major opera houses employed an average of four to twelve dancers; in 1815 many companies employed anywhere from eighty to one hundred dancers.[460]

Carlo Goldoni, who wrote a few scenarios starting in 1734, superseded the comedy of masks and the comedy of intrigue by representations of actual life and manners through the characters and their behaviours. He rightly maintained that Italian life and manners were susceptible of artistic treatment such as had not been given them before. Italian theatre has been active in producing contemporary European work and in staging important revivals, including the works of Luigi Pirandello and Dario Fo.

The Teatro di San Carlo in Naples is the oldest continuously active venue for public opera in the world, opening in 1737, decades before both the Milan's La Scala and Venice's La Fenice theatres.[461]

Music

Giacomo Puccini, Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, Madama Butterfly and Turandot, are among the most frequently worldwide performed in the standard repertoire[462][463]

From folk music to classical, music has always played an important role in Italian culture. Instruments associated with classical music, including the piano and violin, were invented in Italy,[464][465] and many of the prevailing classical music forms, such as the symphony, concerto, and sonata, can trace their roots back to innovations of 16th- and 17th-century Italian music.

Italy's most famous composers include the Renaissance composers Palestrina, Monteverdi and Gesualdo, the Baroque composers Scarlatti, Corelli and Vivaldi, the Classical composers Paisiello, Paganini and Rossini, and the Romantic composers Verdi and Puccini. Modern Italian composers such as Berio and Nono proved significant in the development of experimental and electronic music. While the classical music tradition still holds strong in Italy, as evidenced by the fame of its innumerable opera houses, such as La Scala of Milan and San Carlo of Naples (the oldest continuously active venue for public opera in the world),[461] and performers such as the pianist Maurizio Pollini and tenor Luciano Pavarotti, Italians have been no less appreciative of their thriving contemporary music scene.

Luciano Pavarotti, considered one of the finest tenors of the 20th century and the "King of the High Cs".[466]

Italy is widely known for being the birthplace of opera.[467] Italian opera was believed to have been founded in the early 17th century, in cities such as Mantua and Venice.[467] Later, works and pieces composed by native Italian composers of the 19th and early 20th centuries, such as Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti, Verdi and Puccini, are among the most famous operas ever written and today are performed in opera houses across the world. La Scala operahouse in Milan is also renowned as one of the best in the world. Famous Italian opera singers include Enrico Caruso and Alessandro Bonci.

Introduced in the early 1920s, jazz took a particularly strong foothold in Italy, and remained popular despite the xenophobic cultural policies of the Fascist regime. Today, the most notable centres of jazz music in Italy include Milan, Rome, and Sicily. Later, Italy was at the forefront of the progressive rock and pop movement of the 1970s, with bands like PFM, Banco del Mutuo Soccorso, Le Orme, Goblin, and Pooh.[468] The same period saw diversification in the cinema of Italy, and Cinecittà films included complex scores by composers including Ennio Morricone, Armando Trovaioli, Piero Piccioni and Piero Umiliani. In the early 1980s, the first star to emerge from the Italian hip hop scene was singer Jovanotti.[469] Popular Italian metal bands such as Rhapsody of Fire, Lacuna Coil, Elvenking, Forgotten Tomb, and Fleshgod Apocalypse are also seen as pioneers of various heavy metal subgenres.[470]

Giorgio Moroder, pioneer of Italo disco and electronic dance music, is known as the "Father of Disco."[471]

Italy was also an important country in the development of disco and electronic music, with Italo disco, known for its futuristic sound and prominent use of synthesisers and drum machines, being one of the earliest electronic dance genres, as well as European forms of disco aside from Euro disco (which later went on to influence several genres such as Eurodance and Nu-disco).[472] By circa 1988, the genre had merged into other forms of European dance and electronic music, such as Italo house, which blended elements of Italo disco with traditional house music; its sound was generally uplifting, and made strong usage of piano melodies. Some bands of this genre are Black Box, East Side Beat, and 49ers. By the latter half of the 1990s, a subgenre of Eurodance known as Italo dance emerged. Taking influences from Italo disco and Italo house, Italo dance generally included synthesizer riffs, a melodic sound, and the usage of vocoders. Notable Italian DJs and remixers include Gabry Ponte (member of the group Eiffel 65), Benny Benassi, Gigi D'Agostino, and the trio Tacabro.

Producers such as Giorgio Moroder, who won three Academy Awards and four Golden Globes for his music, were highly influential in the development of electronic dance music.[471] Today, Italian pop music is represented annually with the Sanremo Music Festival, which served as inspiration for the Eurovision song contest, and the Festival of Two Worlds in Spoleto.[473] Singers such as Mina, Andrea Bocelli, Grammy winner Laura Pausini, Zucchero, Eros Ramazzotti and Tiziano Ferro have attained international acclaim.

Gigliola Cinquetti, Toto Cutugno, and Måneskin have won the Eurovision Song Contest, in 1964, 1990, and 2021 respectively.

Cinema

The history of Italian cinema began a few months after the Lumière brothers began motion picture exhibitions. The first Italian film was a few seconds, showing Pope Leo XIII giving a blessing to the camera. The Italian film industry was born between 1903 and 1908 with three companies: the Società Italiana Cines, the Ambrosio Film and the Itala Film. Other companies soon followed in Milan and in Naples. In a short time these first companies reached a fair producing quality, and films were soon sold outside Italy. Cinema was later used by Benito Mussolini, who founded Rome's renowned Cinecittà studio for the production of Fascist propaganda until World War II.[474]

Entrance to Cinecittà in Rome, the largest film studio in Europe

After the war, Italian film was widely recognised and exported until an artistic decline around the 1980s. Notable Italian film directors from this period include Vittorio De Sica, Federico Fellini, Sergio Leone, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Luchino Visconti, Michelangelo Antonioni and Roberto Rossellini; some of these are recognised among the greatest and most influential filmmakers of all time.[475][476] Movies include world cinema treasures such as Bicycle Thieves, La dolce vita, , The Good, the Bad and the Ugly and Once Upon a Time in the West. The mid-1940s to the early 1950s was the heyday of neorealist films, reflecting the poor condition of post-war Italy.[477][478]

As the country grew wealthier in the 1950s, a form of neorealism known as pink neorealism succeeded, and other film genres, such as sword-and-sandal followed as Spaghetti Westerns, were popular in the 1960s and 1970s. Actresses such as Sophia Loren, Giulietta Masina and Gina Lollobrigida achieved international stardom during this period. Erotic Italian thrillers, or giallos, produced by directors such as Mario Bava and Dario Argento in the 1970s, also influenced the horror genre worldwide. In recent years, the Italian scene has received only occasional international attention, with movies like Life Is Beautiful directed by Roberto Benigni, Il Postino: The Postman with Massimo Troisi and The Great Beauty directed by Paolo Sorrentino.

The aforementioned Cinecittà studio is today the largest film and television production facility in continental Europe and the centre of the Italian cinema, where many of the biggest box office hits are filmed, and one of the biggest production communities in the world. In the 1950s, the number of international productions being made there led to Rome's being dubbed "Hollywood on the Tiber". More than 3,000 productions have been made on its lot, of which 90 received an Academy Award nomination and 47 of these won it, from some cinema classics to recent rewarded features (such as Roman Holiday, Ben-Hur, Cleopatra, Romeo and Juliet, The English Patient, The Passion of the Christ, and Gangs of New York).[479]

Italy is the most awarded country at the Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film, with 14 awards won, 3 Special Awards and 31 nominations. As of 2016, Italian films have also won 12 Palmes d'Or (the second-most of any country), 11 Golden Lions and 7 Golden Bears.

Sport

The Azzurri in 2012. Football is the most popular sport in Italy

The most popular sport in Italy is football.[480][481] Italy's national football team is one of the world's most successful teams with four FIFA World Cup victories (1934, 1938, 1982 and 2006).[482] Italian clubs have won 48 major European trophies, making Italy the second most successful country in European football. Italy's top-flight club football league is named Serie A and is followed by millions of fans around the world.

Other popular team sports in Italy include basketball, volleyball and rugby. Italy's male and female national volleyball teams are often featured among the world's best. The Italian national basketball team's best results were gold at Eurobasket 1983 and EuroBasket 1999, as well as silver at the Olympics in 2004. Lega Basket Serie A is widely considered one of the most competitive in Europe. Rugby union enjoys a good level of popularity, especially in the north of the country. Italy's national team competes in the Six Nations Championship, and is a regular at the Rugby World Cup. Italy ranks as a tier-one nation by World Rugby. The men's volleyball team won three consecutive World Championships (in 1990, 1994, and 1998) and earned the Olympic silver medal in 1996, 2004, and 2016.

Starting in 1909, the Giro d'Italia is the Grands Tours' second oldest.[483]

Italy has a long and successful tradition in individual sports as well. Bicycle racing is a very familiar sport in the country.[484] Italians have won the UCI World Championships more than any other country, except Belgium. The Giro d'Italia is a cycling race held every May, and constitutes one of the three Grand Tours, along with the Tour de France and the Vuelta a España, each of which last approximately three weeks. Alpine skiing is also a very widespread sport in Italy, and the country is a popular international skiing destination, known for its ski resorts.[485] Italian skiers achieved good results in Winter Olympic Games, Alpine Ski World Cup, and World Championship.

A Ferrari SF1000 by Scuderia Ferrari, the oldest surviving and most successful Formula One team[486]

Tennis has a significant following in Italy, ranking as the fourth most practised sport in the country.[487] The Rome Masters, founded in 1930, is one of the most prestigious tennis tournaments in the world. Italian professional tennis players won the Davis Cup in 1976 and the Fed Cup in 2006, 2009, 2010 and 2013. Motorsports are also extremely popular in Italy. Italy has won, by far, the most MotoGP World Championships. Italian Scuderia Ferrari is the oldest surviving team in Grand Prix racing, having competed since 1948, and statistically the most successful Formula One team in history with a record of 232 wins.

The Italian Grand Prix of Formula 1 is the fifth oldest surviving Grand Prix, having been held since 1921. It is also one of the two Grand Prix present in every championship since the first one in 1950. Every Formula 1 Grand Prix (except for the 1980) has been held at Autodromo Nazionale Monza. Formula 1 was also held at Imola (1980–2006, 2020) and Mugello (2020)

Historically, Italy has been successful in the Olympic Games, taking part from the first Olympiad and in 47 Games out of 48. Italian sportsmen have won 522 medals at the Summer Olympic Games, and another 106 at the Winter Olympic Games, for a combined total of 628 medals with 235 golds, which makes them the fifth most successful nation in Olympic history for total medals. The country hosted two Winter Olympics and will host a third (in 1956, 2006, and 2026), and one Summer games (in 1960).

Fashion and design

Prada shop in Milan

Italian fashion has a long tradition, and is regarded as one most important in the world. Milan, Florence and Rome are Italy's main fashion capitals. According to Top Global Fashion Capital Rankings 2013 by Global Language Monitor, Rome ranked sixth worldwide when Milan was twelfth.[488] Major Italian fashion labels, such as Gucci, Armani, Prada, Versace, Valentino, Dolce & Gabbana, Missoni, Fendi, Moschino, Max Mara, Trussardi, and Ferragamo, to name a few, are regarded as among the finest fashion houses in the world. Jewellers like Bvlgari, Damiani and Buccellati have been founded in Italy. Also, the fashion magazine Vogue Italia, is considered one of the most prestigious fashion magazines in the world.[489] The talent of young, creative fashion is also promoted, as in the ITS young fashion designer competition in Trieste.[490]

Italy is also prominent in the field of design, notably interior design, architectural design, industrial design and urban design. The country has produced some well-known furniture designers, such as Gio Ponti and Ettore Sottsass, and Italian phrases such as "Bel Disegno" and "Linea Italiana" have entered the vocabulary of furniture design.[491] Examples of classic pieces of Italian white goods and pieces of furniture include Zanussi's washing machines and fridges,[492] the "New Tone" sofas by Atrium,[492] and the post-modern bookcase by Ettore Sottsass, inspired by Bob Dylan's song "Stuck Inside of Mobile with the Memphis Blues Again".[492] Today, Milan and Turin are the nation's leaders in architectural design and industrial design. The city of Milan hosts Fiera Milano, Europe's largest design fair.[493] Milan also hosts major design and architecture-related events and venues, such as the "Fuori Salone" and the Salone del Mobile, and has been home to the designers Bruno Munari, Lucio Fontana, Enrico Castellani and Piero Manzoni.[494]

Cuisine

Clockwise from top left; some of the most popular Italian foods: pizza (Margherita), pasta (Carbonara), espresso, and gelato

The Italian cuisine has developed through centuries of social and political changes, with roots as far back as the 4th century BC. Italian cuisine in itself takes heavy influences, including Etruscan, ancient Greek, ancient Roman, Byzantine, and Jewish.[495] Significant changes occurred with the discovery of the New World with the introduction of items such as potatoes, tomatoes, bell peppers and maize, now central to the cuisine but not introduced in quantity until the 18th century.[496][497] Italian cuisine is noted for its regional diversity,[498][499][500] abundance of difference in taste, and is known to be one of the most popular in the world,[501] wielding strong influence abroad.[502]

The Mediterranean diet forms the basis of Italian cuisine, rich in pasta, fish, fruits and vegetables and characterised by its extreme simplicity and variety, with many dishes having only four to eight ingredients.[503] Italian cooks rely chiefly on the quality of the ingredients rather than on elaborate preparation.[504] Dishes and recipes are often derivatives from local and familial tradition rather than created by chefs, so many recipes are ideally suited for home cooking, this being one of the main reasons behind the ever-increasing worldwide popularity of Italian cuisine, from America[505] to Asia.[506] Ingredients and dishes vary widely by region.

A key factor in the success of Italian cuisine is its heavy reliance on traditional products; Italy has the most traditional specialities protected under EU law.[507] Cheese, cold cuts and wine are a major part of Italian cuisine, with many regional declinations and Protected Designation of Origin or Protected Geographical Indication labels, and along with coffee (especially espresso) make up a very important part of the Italian gastronomic culture.[508] Desserts have a long tradition of merging local flavours such as citrus fruits, pistachio and almonds with sweet cheeses like mascarpone and ricotta or exotic tastes as cocoa, vanilla and cinnamon. Gelato,[509] tiramisù[510] and cassata are among the most famous examples of Italian desserts, cakes and patisserie.

Public holidays and festivals

The Venice Film Festival is the oldest film festival in the world and one of the "Big Three" alongside Cannes and Berlin.[511][512]

Public holidays celebrated in Italy include religious, national and regional observances.[513] Italy's National Day, the Festa della Repubblica (Republic Day) is celebrated on 2 June each year, and commemorates the birth of the Italian Republic in 1946.

The Saint Lucy's Day, which take place on 13 December, is very popular among children in some Italian regions, where she plays a role similar to Santa Claus.[514] In addition, the Epiphany in Italy is associated with the folkloristic figure of the Befana, a broomstick-riding old woman who, in the night between 5 and 6 January, bringing good children gifts and sweets, and bad ones charcoal or bags of ashes.[515] The Assumption of Mary coincides with Ferragosto on 15 August, the summer vacation period which may be a long weekend or most of the month.[516] Each city or town also celebrates a public holiday on the occasion of the festival of the local patron saint, for example: Rome on 29 June (Saints Peter and Paul) and Milan on 7 December (Saint Ambrose).[517]

There are many festivals and festivities in Italy. Some of them include the Palio di Siena horse race, Holy Week rites, Saracen Joust of Arezzo, Saint Ubaldo Day in Gubbio, Giostra della Quintana in Foligno, and the Calcio Fiorentino. In 2013, UNESCO has included among the intangible cultural heritage some Italian festivals and pasos (in Italian "macchine a spalla"), such as the Varia di Palmi, the Macchina di Santa Rosa in Viterbo, the Festa dei Gigli in Nola, and faradda di li candareri in Sassari.[518]

Other festivals include the carnivals in Venice, Viareggio, Satriano di Lucania, Mamoiada, and Ivrea, mostly known for its Battle of the Oranges. The Venice International Film Festival, awarding the "Golden Lion" and held annually since 1932, is the oldest film festival in the world.[511]

See also

  • Index of Italy-related articles
  • Outline of Italy

Notes

  1. ^ Official French maps show the border detouring south of the main summit, and claim the highest point in Italy is Mont Blanc de Courmayeur (4,748 m or 15,577 ft), but these are inconsistent with an 1861 convention and topographic watershed analysis.
  2. ^ According to Mitrica, an October 2005 Romanian report estimates that 1,061,400 Romanians are living in Italy, constituting 37% of 2.8 million immigrants in that country[349] but it is unclear how the estimate was made, and therefore whether it should be taken seriously.

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External links

Government
  • (in Italian) Government website
  • (in Italian) Official site of the Italian Parliament
  • Official site of the President of the Italian Republic
  • Italian Higher Education for International Students
  • Italian National and Regional parks
  • Italian tourism official website
Economy
  • Site of the Ministry of Economy and Finance
General information
  • Italy from the BBC News
  • Italy. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  • Italy from UCB Libraries GovPubs
  • Italy at Curlie
  • Italy Encyclopædia Britannica entry
  • Italy from the OECD
  • Italy at the EU
  • Wikimedia Atlas of Italy
  • Geographic data related to Italy at OpenStreetMap
  • Key Development Forecasts for Italy from International Futures