カトリック教会

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ウィキペディアから、無料の百科事典
  (ローマカトリックからリダイレクト)
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カトリック教会が多いと呼ばれ、ローマカトリック教会は、ある最大のキリスト教会は約13億で、洗礼を受けたカトリック教徒世界中の2019のよう[4]世界で最も古く、最大の継続的に機能する国際機関として[7]、それは西洋文明の歴史と発展において重要な役割を果たしてきました。[8]教会は、24の特定の教会と、世界中のほぼ3,500の教区とエパルキアで構成さ れています。法王ローマの司教である(そしてその称号にはイエス・キリストの牧師と聖ペテロの後継者も含まれている)は、教会の主任牧師であり[9]、統一と矯正の普遍的なペトリン省に委ねられている。教会の管理である聖座は、ローマの小さな飛び地であるバチカン市国にあり、その中の教皇は国家元首です。

カトリックの核となる信念は、ニカイア信条にあります。カトリック教会あることを教示している1、聖なるカトリックと使徒によって設立された教会のイエス・キリストの彼には偉大な委員会、[10] [11] [注1]そのことを司教がある後継者キリストのの使徒、およびというローマ法王があります後継者にサンピエトロ誰時に、優位性は、イエス・キリストによって与えられました。[14]それは、それが受け継がれた、不可謬性を留保して、元のキリスト教の信仰を実践していると主張している。神聖な伝統。[15]ラテン教会、二十から三東方典礼カトリック教会、とのような機関托鉢修道会、囲まれた修道会と第三の受注は反映多様の神学、教会で、精神的な強調を。[16] [17]

その7つの秘跡のうち、聖体はミサで儀式的に祝われる主要な秘跡です。[18]教会は、司祭による奉献を通して、犠牲のパンとぶどう酒がキリストの体と血になると教えています。聖母マリアがされ崇敬としてカトリック教会で神の母と天の女王に光栄、教義と祈り。[19]その教えには神の慈悲が含まれています。 聖信仰とを通して福音の福音書だけでなく、カトリックの社会的な教え病人、貧しい人々のための自主的な支援を強調し、そしてを通じて苦しめ慈悲の伍長と精神的な作品。カトリック教会は、世界中で何千ものカトリック学校、病院、孤児院を運営しており、教育と医療を提供する世界最大の非政府機関です。[20]他の社会福祉の中には、多くの慈善団体や人道団体があります。

カトリック教会は、西洋の哲学、文化、芸術、音楽、科学に影響を与えてきました。カトリック教徒は、ミッション、ディアスポラ、そして回心を通して世界中に住んでいます。 20世紀以来の過半数存在する南半球のために、世俗ヨーロッパでは、と増加した迫害をして中東。カトリック教会は、1054年の東西教会の分裂まで、東方正教会と交わりを共有し、特に教皇の権威。西暦431年のエフェソス公会議の前に、東方諸教会もこの共同体で共有しました。西方諸教会は、西暦451年のカルケドン公会議の前にそうしました。すべては主に キリスト論の違いをめぐって分離されました。16世紀には、改革によってプロテスタントも崩壊しました。後半20世紀からは、カトリック教会はされてきた批判のためのセクシュアリティに教え、その命じる女性にできないこと、および、その取り扱い性的虐待事件の聖職者を含みます。

名前

用語の最初の使用「カトリック教会」(文字通り意味する「普遍的教会」)によって行った教会の父サンアンティオキアのイグナチオ彼にSmyrnaeansへの手紙C。 110  AD)。[21]アンティオキアのイグナチオはまた、「キリスト教」という用語の最も初期の記録された使用に起因している(ギリシャ語:Χριστιανισμόςc。 西暦 100年。[22]彼はローマで亡くなり、彼の遺物はサンクレメンテアルラテラノ大聖堂にありました。

カトリック(ギリシャ語から:καθολικόςローマ字:  katholikoslit。 「ユニバーサル」)は、2世紀初頭に教会を説明するために最初に使用されました。[23]「カトリック教会」(ギリシャ語:καθολικὴἐκκλησίαローマ字: 彼はカトリックのエククレシア)というフレーズの最初の既知の使用は、アンティオキアの聖イグナチオからスミルナエ人への西暦110年頃に書かれた手紙で起こった。[注2]問答講義C。 350)のエルサレムの聖シリル、「カトリック教会」という名前は、自分たちを「教会」と呼んでいる他のグループと区別するために使用されました。[24] [25]「カトリック」という概念は、さらに、勅令で強調されたデ善意カトリックがで380を発行したテオドシウスI、両方の上に支配する最後の皇帝、東部と西部の半分ローマ帝国を確立するとき、の状態教会ローマ帝国。[26]

1054年の東西教会の分裂以来、東方教会はその独特の形容詞として「正教会」を採用し(ただし、正式名称は引き続き「正教会カトリック教会」[27])、西方教会はホーリーシーも同様に「カトリック」を取り、聖体拝領をやめた人々が「プロテスタント」として知られるようになった16世紀のプロテスタント改革後もその説明を維持しています。[28] [29]

「ローマの教会は」教皇の記述するために使用されてきたが、ローマの教区をので、西ローマ帝国の秋とに中世初期(第六-10世紀)、「ローマ・カトリック教会は」教会全体に適用されています16世紀後半のプロテスタント改革以来の英語で。[30]「ローマ・カトリック」は、聖座によって作成された文書[注3]、特に特定の全国司教会議に適用された文書、および地方の教区にも時折登場しました。【注4】

教会全体の「カトリック教会」という名前は、カトリック教会のカテキズム(1990年)と教会法の規範(1983年)で使用されています。名前「カトリック教会」もの文書で使用されている第二バチカン公会議(1962年から1965年)、[31]第1バチカン公会議(1869年から1870年)、[32]トレントの評議会(1545年から1563年)、[ 33]および他の多くの公式文書。[34] [35]

歴史

このフレスコ画によって(1481年から1482年)ピエトロ・ペルジーノでのシスティーナ礼拝堂は、イエスが与えて示し天国の鍵をにサンピエトロ。
最後の晩餐、レオナルドダヴィンチによる1490年代後半の壁画、イエスの最後の晩餐と彼のはりつけの前夜の12人の使徒を描いたもの。聖ペテロを含むほとんどの使徒はローマに埋葬されています。

キリスト教は、ローマ帝国のユダヤ州で1世紀に住んで説教したイエスキリストの教えに基づいています。カトリック神学は、現代のカトリック教会は、イエスによって設立されたこの初期のキリスト教共同体の継続であると教えています。[10]異教の国教との対立による迫害にもかかわらず、キリスト教は初期のローマ帝国全体に広がった。コンスタンティヌス皇帝は313年にキリスト教の慣習を合法化し、380年に国教になりました。5世紀と6世紀にゲルマン人がローマ領土に侵入し、その多くは以前にアリウス派のキリスト教を採用していました。、最終的には教皇庁と修道院と同盟を結ぶためにカトリックを採用しました。

7日と8世紀では、拡大するイスラム教徒の征服をの出現以下のイスラム教は、その地域と北ヨーロッパ間の政治的な接続を切断地中海のアラブの支配につながった、とローマとの間で文化的な接続を弱体化ビザンチン帝国。教会の権威、特にローマの司教の権威を含む紛争は、最終的に11世紀の東西教会の分裂で頂点に達し、教会をカトリック教会と正教会に分割しました。エフェソス公会議(431)とカルケドン公会議の後に教会内での初期の分裂が起こった(451)。しかし、いくつかの東方教会はローマとの交わりを維持し、他のいくつかの教会は15世紀以降に交わりを確立し、いわゆる東方典礼カトリック教会を形成しました。

ヨーロッパ中の初期の修道院は、ギリシャとローマの古典文明を保護するのに役立ちました。教会はやがて西洋文明の支配的な影響力となり、現代に至りました。多くのルネッサンスの人物は教会によって後援されました。しかし、16世紀には、プロテスタント改革の人物による教会、特にその宗教的権威に対する挑戦が見られ始め、17世紀には啓蒙主義の世俗的な知識人による挑戦が見られ始めました。同時に、スペイン語とポルトガル語の探検家と宣教師は、アフリカ、アジア、そして新世界に教会の影響力を広めました。

1870年に、第1バチカン公会議はの教義宣言教皇不可謬性をし、イタリア王国は、ローマの街を併合し、最後の部分教皇領は、新しい国家に組み込まれます。 20世紀には、メキシコやスペインを含む世界中の反教権主義政府が、何千人もの聖職者や素人を迫害または処刑しました。第二次世界大戦では、教会はナチズムを非難し、数十万人のユダヤ人をホロコーストから保護しました。しかし、その努力は不十分であると批判されてきました。戦後、ソビエト連邦と新たに連携した共産主義国では、信教の自由が厳しく制限された。、そのうちのいくつかはカトリックの人口が多かった。

1960年代、第2バチカン公会議は、教会の典礼と慣習の改革をもたらしました。これは、擁護者によって「窓を開ける」と表現されましたが、伝統主義カトリック教徒によって批判されました。男性の聖職者を制限するなど、セクシュアリティやジェンダーに関する論争の教義上の位置、および道徳的なのexhortations内となしの両方から増加批判に直面して、教会は支持しているか、または様々な時間で再確認中絶、避妊、性行為の結婚の外で、再婚を以下の離婚をせずに破棄し、反対同性結婚。

使徒継承と教皇

聖ペテロへのイエスの任務

新約聖書は、特に福音書、イエスの活動と教育、十二使徒と彼の任命記録グレート委員会の彼の仕事を続けるためにそれらを指示し、使徒のを。[36] [37]使徒言行録は、キリスト教教会の設立とローマ帝国へのそのメッセージの広がりについて述べています。[38] カトリック教会は、その公務がペンテコステで始まり、キリストが復活したと信じられている日から50日後に起こったと教えています。[39]ペンテコステでは、使徒たちは聖霊を受け、教会を導くという使命に備えると信じられています。[40] [41]カトリック教会は、ことを教示している司教の大学が率いる、ローマの司教がある後継使徒へ。[42]

マタイの福音書にあるペテロの告白の説明の中で、キリストはペテロをキリストの教会が建てられる「岩」として指定しています。[43] [44]カトリック教会は、教皇であるローマの司教が聖ペテロの後継者であると考えている。[45]一部の学者は、ピーターがローマの最初の司教であったと述べている。[46] [注5]他の人々は、教皇庁の制度は、ピーターがローマの司教であったという考えや、彼がローマにいたことさえも依存していないと言う。[47]多くの学者は、複数の長老/司教の教会構造は、単一の司教と複数の長老の構造が採用された2世紀半ばまでローマに存続し[48]、後の作家は「ローマの司教」という用語を遡及的に適用したと考えています。 「初期の聖職者の最も著名なメンバーとピーター自身にも。[48]これに基づき、オスカー・クルマン、[49] ヘンリー・チャドウィック、[50]とバート・D・エアーマン[51]ピーターと現代のローマ教皇の間の正式なリンクがあったかどうかを質問。レイモンドE.ブラウンまた、ローマの地元の司教の観点からペテロについて話すのは時代錯誤であるが、その時代のキリスト教徒はペテロを「教皇の役割の発展に本質的な方法で貢献する役割を持っている」と見なしていただろうとも述べています次の教会」。これらの役割は、「ローマの司教、ペテロが亡くなり、パウロがキリストの真理を目撃した都市の司教を、教会の普遍的な世話をするペテロの後継者として見ることに多大な貢献をした」とブラウンは言います。[48]

古代とローマ帝国

ローマ帝国の状況は、新しいアイデアの普及を促進しました。帝国の道路と水路のネットワークは旅行を容易にし、パックスロマーナは旅行を安全にしました。帝国はギリシャのルーツを持つ共通の文化の普及を促進し、それによりアイデアをより簡単に表現し理解することができました。[52]

しかし、ローマ帝国のほとんどの宗教とは異なり、キリスト教はその信奉者に他のすべての神々を放棄することを要求しました。これはユダヤ教から採用された慣習です(偶像崇拝を参照)。キリスト教徒が異教の祭典に参加することを拒否したことは、彼らが公の生活の多くに参加できなかったことを意味し、政府当局を含む非キリスト教徒は、キリスト教徒が神々を怒らせ、それによって帝国の平和と繁栄を脅かしていることを恐れました。結果として迫害は、キリスト教が4世紀に合法化されるまで、キリスト教の自己理解の決定的な特徴でした。[53]

コンスタンティヌス1世によって318年に建てられた、旧サンピエトロ大聖堂の19世紀の素描

313年、コンスタンティヌス1世のミラノ勅令はキリスト教を合法化し、330年、コンスタンティヌス1世は帝国の首都をトルコの現代イスタンブールのコンスタンティノープルに移しました。 380でテサロニケの勅令がなされニカイアキリスト教ローマ帝国の状態教会の減少領土内という位置ビザンチン帝国自体がに終わった帝国まで持続しますコンスタンティノープルの陥落他の場所で教会が独立していたのに対し、1453年に東西教会の分裂で特に明らかになったように、帝国。期間中7つの公会議、5つの主要な公会議が出現し、6世紀半ばにユスティニアヌス1世がローマ、コンスタンティノープル、アンティオキア、エルサレム、アレクサンドリアの五角形として正式に編曲しました。[54] [55] 451においてカルケドン公会議、係争有効キヤノンに、[56]は上昇コンスタンの参照を位置「ローマの司教に隆起及び電力の第二」に。[57] cから。 350からc。 500、ローマの司教、または教皇は、支援への彼らの一貫した介入を通して着実に権威を増しました彼らへの訴えを奨励した神学的論争の正統派指導者。[58]皇帝ユスティニアヌス彼の制御下にある地域で決定的の形確立、皇帝教皇主義を、[59]彼はまた、口述の権利と彼の法律によって礼拝と規律のminutest詳細を規制する義務、としていた」とは、教会で行われるべき神学的意見」[60]は、ローマと西部の他の地域に対する帝国の権力を再確立し、ビザンチン教皇主義と呼ばれる期間を開始した。ローマ、または教皇の司教、コンスタンまたは奉献のためにラヴェンナの代理人からの皇帝から必要な承認、及び最も彼のギリシャ語圏の対象から皇帝によって選択された時(537から752)、[61]得られました芸術と典礼における西洋と東洋のキリスト教の伝統の「るつぼ」で。[62]

次の世紀にローマ帝国に侵入したゲルマン部族のほとんどは、カトリック教会が異端であると宣言したアリウス派の形でキリスト教を採用していました。[63]ゲルマンの支配者とカトリックの主題の間で生じた宗教的不一致[64]は、497年にフランク人の支配者であるクロヴィス1世が正教会のカトリックに改宗し、教皇庁と修道院と同盟を結んだときに回避された。[65]スペインの西ゴート族は、589で彼のリードに続く[66] 7世紀の過程で、イタリアのロンゴバルド。[67]

西方キリスト教は、特にその修道院を通じて、その芸術(装飾写本を参照)と識字能力を備えた古典文明を保存する上での主要な要因でした。[68] [69]彼を通じてルール、ヌルシアのベネディクトゥス(C。480から543)、の創始者の一人西洋修道院は、初期のカトリック教会の修道士の精神的遺産の処分を通じて、欧州の文化に多大な影響力を発揮し、 、ベネディクトの伝統の広がりとともに、古代文化の保存と伝達を通じて。この期間中、出家アイルランドは学習の中心地となり、アイルランドの初期の宣教師は次のようになりました。コルンバヌスとコルンバはキリスト教を広め、ヨーロッパ大陸全体に修道院を設立しました。[1]

中世とルネッサンス

シャルトル大聖堂、1220年

カトリック教会は、古代末期から現代の夜明けまで、西洋文明に支配的な影響を及ぼしました。[8]それは、芸術、建築、音楽におけるロマネスク、ゴシック、ルネッサンス、マニエリスム、バロック様式の主要なスポンサーでした。[70]ラファエロ、ミケランジェロ、レオナルドダヴィンチ、ボッティチェッリ、フラアンジェリコ、ティントレット、ティツィアーノ、ベルニーニ、カラヴァッジョなどのルネッサンスの人物は、教会が後援する数多くの視覚芸術家の例です。[71]の歴史家ポールレグトコスタンフォード大学は、カトリック教会は「私たちが西洋文明と呼ぶものを構成する価値観、アイデア、科学、法律、制度の発展の中心にある」と述べました。[72]

7世紀半ばの大規模なイスラムの侵略は、地中海沿岸全体でキリスト教とイスラム教の間の長い闘争を開始しました。ビザンチン帝国はすぐに東部の土地失わpatriarchatesのエルサレム、アレクサンドリアとアンティオキアをとのそれに減少したコンスタンティノープル、帝国の首都。地中海のイスラム支配の結果として、その海から離れて中心にあるフランクの州は、中世の西ヨーロッパを形作った支配的な力として進化することができました。[73]トゥールーズとの戦いポアティエは西部でのイスラムの前進を止め、失敗したコンスタンティノープル包囲戦は東部でそれを止めた。 20年か30年後の751年、ビザンチン帝国は、その主権を認めたローマを含むイタリアの小さな断片を統治していたラヴェンナの街をロンバルド人に失いました。ラヴェンナの崩壊は、教皇ステファヌス2世の752年の選挙中に、もはや存在しないエクザルフによる確認が求められなかったこと、そして教皇庁がそれを保護するための市民権を他の場所で探すことを余儀なくされたことを意味しました。[74] 754年、教皇ステファヌス6世の緊急の要請により、フランク王国の王ピピン3世がランゴバルド人を征服した。彼はそれから才能がありました前者の土地は教皇にエクサルコスし、こうして教皇領を開始します。ローマやビザンチン東の間、さらに紛争を掘り下げますPhotian分裂するとき、860sのPhotiusがの追加のラテン西批判フィリオクェ問題によって破門された後、句ニコラスIを。分裂は和解しましたが、未解決の問題はさらなる分裂につながるでしょう。[75]

11世紀では、の努力Sovanaののヒルデブラントは、の創出につながっ枢機卿の大学で始まる、新しい教皇を選出するために教皇アレクサンデルIIで1061年の教皇選挙。アレクサンドル2世が亡くなったとき、ヒルデブランドは教皇グレゴリウス7世として彼の後任に選出されました。グレゴリウス7世が設立を支援した枢機卿団の基本的な選挙制度は、21世紀まで機能し続けています。教皇グレゴリウス7世は、聖職者の世俗的権威からの独立に関するグレゴリウス改革をさらに開始しました。これは教会と神聖ローマ皇帝の間の叙任論争につながりました、その上に司教と教皇を任命する権限がありました。[76] [77]

1095年には、ビザンチン皇帝アレクシオス私はに訴えたウルバヌス2世への新たなイスラム教徒の侵略に対する援助のためにセルジューク・東ローマ戦争、[78]都市が起動する原因となった第1回十字軍をビザンチン帝国を支援し、返却を目的とした聖地をキリスト教のコントロールに。[79]では11世紀、主にギリシャの教会とカトリック教会の間に緊張関係は、それらを分離東西教会の分裂部分的に原因をめぐる紛争に、教皇の権威。第4回十字軍そして、反逆の十字軍によるコンスタンティノープルの解任は、最終的な違反を証明しました。[80]この時代、フランスの偉大なゴシック様式の大聖堂は、キリスト教信仰に対する人気のある誇りの表れでした。

13世紀初頭、アッシジのフランチェスコとドミニコデグスマンによって托鉢修道会が設立されました。STUDIAのconventualiaSTUDIA generalia托鉢修道会の教会後援の転換に大きな役割を果たした大聖堂の学校などのような、そして宮殿の学校シャルルマーニュのアーヘンヨーロッパの著名な大学に、。[81]ドミニコ会の司祭トマス・アクィナスなどのスコラ神学者や哲学者は、これらの研究室で研究し、教えた。アクィナスの神学大全 プラトンやアリストテレスなどの古代ギリシャの哲学者の遺産をキリスト教の啓示の内容と統合することにおける知的マイルストーンでした。[82]

政教分離の意識の高まりは、14世紀をマークしました。ローマの不安定さから逃れるために、1309年にクレメンス5世は、アヴィニョン捕囚として知られる時期に、南フランスの要塞都市アヴィニョンに住む7人の教皇の最初の人物となりました[83]。アヴィニョン捕囚は教皇がローマに戻った1376年に終わりましたが[84]、1378年に38年にわたる西洋の教会大分裂が続き、ローマ、アヴィニョン、そして(1409年以降)ピサの教皇の主張者がいました。[84]この問題は、コンスタンツ公会議で1415年から17年に大部分が解決された。、ローマとピサの原告は辞任に同意し、3番目の原告はマルティヌス5世の教皇という名前の新しい選挙を行った枢機卿によって破門されました。[85]

ルネサンス期はカトリック芸術の黄金時代でした。写真:ミケランジェロが描いたシスティーナ礼拝堂の天井

1438年、カトリック教会と正教会の再会を期待して、東西の神学的な違いを理解することに焦点を当てた強力な対話を特徴とするフィレンツェ公会議が召集されました。[86]いくつかの東方典礼カトリック教会が再会し、東方典礼カトリック教会の大多数を形成した。[87]

大航海時代

ディスカバリーの時代15世紀に始まり、西ヨーロッパの政治的、文化的影響力の世界的な拡大を見ました。スペインとポルトガルの強力なカトリック諸国が西部植民地主義で果たした顕著な役割のために、カトリックは探検家、征服者、宣教師によって、そして社会政治的メカニズムによる社会の変革によって、アメリカ大陸、アジア、オセアニアに広まりました。植民地支配の。教皇アレクサンデル6世は、新しく発見された土地のほとんどに対して植民地の権利をスペインとポルトガルに与えており[88]、その後のパトロナト制度により、バチカンではなく州当局が新しい植民地のすべての聖職者の任命を管理することができました。[89] 1521年、ポルトガルの探検家フェルディナンドマゼランは、フィリピンで最初のカトリックの改宗者を作りました。[90]他の場所では、スペインのイエズス会フランシスコ・ザビエルの下のポルトガル人宣教師がインド、中国、そして日本で福音を宣べ伝えた。[91] 16世紀に始まった南北アメリカのフランス植民地化は、ローマカトリックのフランス語圏の人口を確立し、非カトリック教徒がケベックに定住することを禁じた。[92]

プロテスタント改革と対抗宗教改革

もともとアウグスチノ修道士だったマルティン・ルターは、1517年に95か条の論題を投稿しました。

1415年には、ヤン・フスは異端のために火あぶりに、彼の改革努力を奨励したマルティン・ルター、アウグ現代ドイツの僧、送信された彼の95ヶ条の論題を1517にいくつかの司教には、[93]彼の論文は、キーに抗議しましたカトリックのポイント教義などの販売おぼれる、そして一緒にライプチヒディベートこれは彼につながっ破門1521で[93] [94]では、スイス、フルドリッヒ・ツヴィングリ、ジョンカルビンや他のプロテスタントの改革さらにカトリックの教えを批判した。これらの課題は改革へと発展し、それがプロテスタント 宗派の大多数[95]と、カトリック教会内の暗号プロテスタント主義を生み出しました。[96]一方、ヘンリー8世は、アラゴンのキャサリンとの結婚に関して無効の宣言を教皇に請願した。これが否定されたとき、彼は彼をイングランド国教会の長にするために国王至上法を通過させ、英国宗教改革と最終的な英国国教会の発展に拍車をかけました。[97]

宗教改革は、プロテスタントのシュマルカルデン同盟とカトリック皇帝カール5世およびその同盟国との間の衝突に貢献しました。最初の9年間の戦争は、1555年にアウグスブルクの平和で終わりましたが、緊張が続くと、1618年に勃発したはるかに深刻な紛争である30年戦争が発生しました。[98]フランスでは、フランス戦争と呼ばれる一連の紛争が発生しました。宗教は1562年から1598年にかけて、Huguenots(フランスのカルビニスト)と一連の教皇によって支援され資金提供されたフランスのカトリックリーグの軍隊との間で戦いました。[99]これは下で終わったフランスのプロテスタントに市民的および宗教的寛容を認めるアンリ4世の1598年のナントの勅令を躊躇して受け入れた教皇クレメンス8世。[98] [99]

トレントの評議会(1545-1563)が原動力になった対抗宗教改革プロテスタントの動きに応じて。教義上、それは、聖変化や愛と希望の必要性、そして救いを達成するための信仰などの中心的なカトリックの教えを再確認しました。[100]その後の数世紀で、カトリックは、一部は宣教師と帝国主義を通じて世界中に広まったが、啓蒙時代とその後の宗教的懐疑論の高まりにより、ヨーロッパの人口に対する支配力は低下した。[101]

啓蒙と近世

遺跡イエズス会伝道所で、サン・ミゲル・ダスMissõesブラジル

17世紀以降、啓蒙主義は西洋社会に対するカトリック教会の力と影響力に疑問を投げかけました。[102] 18世紀には、ヴォルテールや百科全書派などの作家が、宗教とカトリック教会の両方に対する痛烈な批評を書いた。彼らの批判の1つの標的は、フランスのルイ14世によるナントの勅令の1685年の取り消しであり、これはプロテスタントのユグノーの宗教的寛容の1世紀にわたる政策を終わらせた。教皇庁がガリカニスムの推進に抵抗したため、1789年のフランス革命は権力を国家に移し、教会の破壊を引き起こし、理由のカルト、[103]との殉教修道女の間の恐怖政治[104] 1798年、ナポレオン・ボナパルトのルイ=アレクサンドル・ベルティエ将軍がイタリア半島に侵入し、捕われの身で亡くなった教皇ピウス6世を投獄した。ナポレオンは後に1801年の協約を通じてフランスにカトリック教会を再建しました。[105]ナポレオン戦争の終結は、カトリックの復活と教皇領の復活をもたらした。[106]

1854年、教皇ピウス9世は、1851年から1853年まで相談した圧倒的多数のカトリック司教の支持を得て、カトリック教会の教義として無原罪の御宿りを宣言しました。[107] 1870年、第1バチカン公会議は、明確に定義された宣言で行使された場合、教皇不可謬説を確認し[108] [109]、公会議主義のライバルの立場に打撃を与えた。これと他の問題をめぐる論争と呼ばれる離脱の動きが生じた旧カトリック教会、[110]

1860年代のイタリア統一は、1870年からのローマ自体を含む教皇領をイタリア王国に組み入れ、それによって教皇領の一時的な権力を終わらせました。それに応じて、教皇ピウス9世は、ヴィットーリオエマヌエル2世を破門し、土地の支払いを拒否し、彼に特別な特権を与えたイタリアの教皇保障法を拒否しました。イタリア当局への目に見える服従に身を置くことを避けるために、彼は「バチカンの囚人」のままでした。[111]ローマ問題として話されたこのスタンドオフは、1929年のラテラノ条約によって解決されました。これにより、聖座は、支払いの見返りとして旧教皇領に対するイタリアの主権を認め、バチカン市国に対する教皇領を新しい主権および独立国家として認めた。[112]

カトリックの宣教師は、19世紀後半にヨーロッパの帝国勢力がアフリカを征服することを一般的に支持し、促進しようとしました。宗教史家のエイドリアン・ヘイスティングスによれば、植民地時代の不正に反対することをいとわなかったプロテスタントの宣教師とは対照的に、カトリックの宣教師は一般にアフリカの権利を擁護したり、アフリカ人に自分たちをヨーロッパ人と同等であると見なすように勧めたりしませんでした。[113]

20世紀

第一次世界大戦中、カトリック教会から多くの平和への訴えがありました。1917年8月1日の教皇ベネディクトゥス15世の「Dèsledébut」イニシアチブは、戦争当事者の拒絶のために失敗しました。[114]

20世紀には多くの反教権主義政府が出現しました。メキシコの教会と州を分離する1926年の政教分離法はクリステロ戦争を引き起こし[115]、3,000人以上の司祭が追放または暗殺され[116]、教会は冒涜され、奉仕は嘲笑され、修道女はレイプされ、捕らえられた司祭は射殺された。[115] 1917年の10月革命後、ソビエト連邦における教会とカトリック教徒への迫害は1930年代まで続き、聖職者、僧侶、平信徒の処刑と追放、宗教的道具の没収、教会の閉鎖が行われた。[117] [118] 1936〜39年のスペイン内戦、人民戦線政府に対してフランコの 国民党と同盟を結んだカトリックの階層[119]は、教会に対する共和党の暴力を正当化するものとして引用している。[120] [121]教皇ピオ十一世は、これら3つの国を「ひどい三角形」と呼んだ。[122] [123]

教会はホロコースト、戦争、ナチスに対してほとんど何もしなかったと強く批判されていますが、司祭ハインリヒ・マイヤーが率いるような個々のカトリック抵抗グループは、強制収容所の囚人によって作られたV-2と戦うために同盟国を助けました。

1933年の違反後ライヒスコンコルダート教会との間にナチスドイツ、ピウス11世は、 1937年勅発行したミット・ブレネンダー・ゾルゲ公に教会のナチス迫害との彼らのイデオロギー非難し、ネオ異教と人種的優越性を。[124] [125] [126]教会は、第二次世界大戦とその後の戦時中のナチスの侵略を開始した1939年のポーランド侵攻を非難した。[127]ナチスが占領した国々で数千人のカトリックの司祭、修道女、兄弟が投獄されるか、強制収容所に連れて行かれ、聖人マキシミリアノコルベやエディススタインを含む拷問と殺害が行われました。[128] [129]対照的に、カトリック聖職者は、ナチスと協力し、彼らの反ユダヤ主義政策を模倣し、彼らがスロバキアでホロコーストを実行するのを助けたファシストスロバキア国家の政府において主導的な役割を果たした。スロバキア国家の大統領であるヨゼフ・ティソはカトリックの司祭であり、彼の政府によるスロバキアのユダヤ人の絶滅収容所への強制送還を支持した。[130]

それは受動的な抵抗だけでなく、国家社会主義を打ち負かすことについても積極的にでした。たとえば、マイルスクリスティと呼ばれることの多い司祭ハインリヒマイヤー周辺のカトリック抵抗グループは、V-1飛行爆弾、V-2ロケット、タイガータンク、メッサーシュミットMe 163コメット、彼らがドイツの生産施設を標的にすることができる同盟国への他の航空機。情報の多くはに重要だったハイドラ作戦と運用クロスボウ、両方クリティカルな業務運用覇王。マイヤーと彼のグループは、アウシュビッツでのユダヤ人の大量殺戮について、非常に早い段階でアメリカのシークレットサービスOSSに知らせました。[131]

第二次世界大戦中の1944年のローマ解放後、教皇ピオ十二世の聴衆の中にいるカナダ王立22e連隊のメンバー

1943年頃、アドルフヒトラーは、ドイツでの教皇の誘拐と彼の収容所を計画しました。彼はSSGeneral Wolffに、アクションの準備をするための対応する命令を出しました。[132] [133]一方ピウス12をする助けと信じてきたユダヤ人の数十万人を救う中にホロコースト、[134] [135]教会はまたの奨励世紀たと非難されてきたユダヤをその教えによって、[136]そしてナチスの残虐行為を止めるのに十分なことをしていません。[137]多くのナチス犯罪者は、第二次世界大戦後、バチカンからの強力な支持者がいたために海外に逃亡した。[138] [139] [140]ピオ十二世の裁き。教皇使節、国務長官、教皇としての彼の在職期間のために教会のアーカイブが部分的に閉鎖されているか、まだ処理されていないため、情報筋によってさらに困難になっています。 [141]

でバラバラユーゴスラビア、教会はナチス・インストールクロアチアローマカトリックファシスト好まウスタシャのの溶解以下の地域でのカトリックの影響力を回復するために、潜在的にその反共イデオロギーにしてのために政権をオーストリア=ハンガリー帝国。[142]しかしながら、それはクロアチア独立国(NDH)を正式に認めなかった。[142]正教会のセルビア人、ユダヤ人および他の非クロアチア人に対する政権の大量虐殺について知らされたにもかかわらず、教会はそれに対して公に発言せず、外交を通じて圧力をかけることを好んだ。[143]バチカンの立場を評価するにあたり、歴史家Jozo Tomasevichは、「カトリック教会は[Ustaše]政権とその政策を完全に支持したようだ」と書いています。[144]

中、戦後の期間、中に共産党政府中央および東ヨーロッパでは厳しく、宗教の自由を制限しました。[145]一部の司祭および宗教的人々は共産主義政権と協力したが、[146]他の多くは投獄、国外追放、または処刑された。教会は、ヨーロッパ、特にポーランド人民共和国における共産主義の崩壊において重要な役割を果たしました。[147]

1949年、中国内戦での共産主義の勝利は、すべての外国人宣教師の追放につながりました。[148]新政府はまた、愛国教会を創設し、その司教を任命した。これらの任命は、それらの多くが受け入れられる前に、最初はローマによって拒否されました。[149] [より良い情報源が必要]文化大革命中の1960年代に、中国共産党はすべての宗教施設を閉鎖した。中国の教会が最終的に再開したとき、彼らは愛国教会の管理下にとどまりました。多くのカトリック牧師と司祭は、ローマへの忠誠を放棄することを拒否したために刑務所に送られ続けました。[150]

第2バチカン公会議

司教たちは第二バチカン公会議中に耳を傾けます

第2バチカン公会議(1962〜 1965年)は、4世紀前のトレント公会議以来、カトリックの慣習に最も重要な変更を導入しました。[151]教皇ヨハネ23世によって始められたこの公会議は、カトリック教会の慣習を近代化し、ミサが土語(現地語)で言われることを可能にし、「典礼の祭典への完全に意識的で積極的な参加」を奨励した。[152]それは、教会を現在の世界(aggiornamento)とより密接に結びつけることを意図しており、それはその支持者によって「窓の開放」として説明された。[153]典礼の変化に加えて、それは教会のへのアプローチに変化をもたらしエキュメニズム、[154]と非キリスト教の宗教との関係改善、特にへの呼び出しユダヤ教の文書で、ノストラaetate[155]

しかし、評議会はその改革の実施において重大な論争を引き起こした。スイスの神学者ハンス・キュングのような「第二バチカン公会議の精神」の支持者は、第二バチカン公会議は教会の政策を変えるのに「十分に進んでいない」と述べた。[156]しかしながら、マルセル・ルフェブル大司教のような伝統主義カトリック教徒は、その典礼改革が「ミサの聖なる犠牲と秘跡の破壊」につながったと主張して、評議会を強く批判した。[157]

カトリック教会のいくつかの教えは、評議会と同時およびその後の両方でますます精査されました。それらの教えの中には、避妊の不道徳に関する教会の教えがありました。以前の方法とは道徳的に異なると一部の人が信じていたホルモン避妊薬(「ピル」を含む)の最近の導入により、ヨハネ23世は、新しい方法の道徳的および神学的問題について助言する委員会を設立しました。[158] [159] 教皇パウロ6世その後、委員会の範囲を拡大してすべての方法を自由に検討し、委員会の未発表の最終報告書は、少なくともいくつかの避妊方法を許可することを示唆していると噂されていました。パウロは提示された議論に同意せず、最終的には避妊に対する教会の絶え間ない教えを支持したと言って、Humanaevitaeを発行しました。それは禁止されているようにホルモン法を明確に含んでいました。[注6]この文書は、多くのカトリック教徒から大部分が否定的な反応を生み出しました。[誰から?] [160]

ヨハネパウロ2世

教皇ヨハネパウロ2世は、冷戦の終結と共産主義の崩壊への主要な影響力として認められました。ここでは、1982年にロナルドレーガン米国大統領と彼の妻ナンシーと一緒に。

1978年、教皇ヨハネ・パウロ二世、以前はクラクフの大司教でポーランド人民共和国は、455年ぶりの非イタリア人教皇になりました。彼の26年半の教皇は歴史上最も長いものの1つでした。[161] ソビエト連邦大統領のミハイル・ゴルバチョフは、ヨーロッパにおける共産主義の崩壊を早めたとしてポーランドの教皇を称賛した。[162]

ヨハネパウロ2世はますます世俗的な世界を伝道しようとしました。彼は若者のための「教皇との世界的な出会い」としてワールドユースデーを制定しました。現在は2〜3年ごとに開催されています。[163]彼は、129カ国を訪問し、他のどの教皇よりも多くの旅[164]と教会の教えを広める手段として、テレビやラジオを使用します。彼はまた、労働者の尊厳と労働者の自然な権利が、Laboremexercensで公正な賃金と安全な条件を持っていることを強調した[165]彼は中絶、安楽死に対する道徳的な勧めを含むいくつかの教会の教えを強調した、そして死刑の広範な使用に反対して、EvangeliumVitaeで[166]

20世紀後半から、カトリック教会は、セクシュアリティに関する教義、女性を叙階することができないこと、性的虐待事件の取り扱いについて批判されてきました。

1992年、バチカンは、地球が太陽の周りを回っていることを証明したとして、359年前にガリレオを迫害したことの誤りを認めました。[167] [168]

21世紀

2005年、ヨハネパウロ2世の死後、ヨハネパウロの下で信仰の教義のための会衆の長である教皇ベネディクト16世が選出されました。彼は伝統的な認容するために知られていたクリスチャン値に対して世俗化、[169]との使用の増加のためにトリエント・ミサに見られるようローマミサ典の1962年[170] 2012年、アセンブリのバチカンIIの50周年、の会議の司教たちは、先進国で失踪したカトリック教徒の再福音化について話し合った。[171]高齢者の弱さを引用して、ベネディクト2013年に辞任し、600年近くで最初の教皇になりました。[172]

教皇フランシスコ

教皇フランシス、カトリック教会の現在の法王は、最初から教皇として2013年に教皇ベネディクト十六世の後を継いアメリカ大陸からの最初の南半球、そしてシリアから外ヨーロッパからの最初の教皇グレゴリーIII 8日に君臨し、世紀。教皇フランシスコは、謙遜さ、神の憐れみの強調、貧しい人々と環境への配慮、そして宗教間対話への献身で知られています。彼は前任者よりも教皇への正式なアプローチが少ないと信じられています。

教皇フランシスコは、「正教会とのほぼ1、000年の疎外をさらに閉じる」ための彼の努力で知られています。[173]彼のインストールが出席したコンスタンティノープル総主教バーソロミューIの東方正教会、[174]以来、初めて大分裂東方正教会という1054年のコンスタンティノープル総主教は教皇のインストールに出席しました。[175] 2016年2月12日、教皇フランシスとモスクワ総主教キリルで会った、最大の東方正教会の教会の頭、ハバナ、キューバは、発行します2つの教会間のキリスト教の統一の回復を求める共同宣言。これは、1054年の大分裂以来の2つの教会間の最初のそのような高レベルの会合として報告されました。[176]

2014年、司教会議の第3回臨時総会は、家族と結婚、および無効の宣言なしに教会の外で離婚して再婚した人々などの「不規則な」関係にあるカトリック教徒に対する教会の働きについて話しました。[177] [178]一部の人々は歓迎したが、曖昧さが認識されたとして一部の人々から批判され、異なる視点の個々の代表者の間で論争を引き起こした。[179]

2017年にエジプトを訪問した際、教皇フランシスコはコプト正教会との洗礼の相互承認を再確立しました。[180]

組織

「私はあなたに天国の鍵を与えます、そしてあなたが地球上で束縛するものはすべて天国で束縛され、あなたが地球上で解くものはすべて天国で解き放たれます。」マタイの福音書におけるイエスからペテロへ、16:19 聖座の交差した金と銀の鍵は、教皇庁が解き放たれる力を表すサイモン・ペテロの鍵を象徴しています。三重の王冠教皇冠は、「王の父」、「世界の知事」、「キリストの牧師」としての教皇の三重の力を象徴しています。ティアラの上にあるモンド(地球儀)の金の十字架は、イエスの主権を象徴しています。

カトリック教会は、教会内の統治の正式な管轄権を与えられた神聖な秩序の聖餐を受けた司教たちによって率いられた監督制に従います。[181] [182]聖職者には、教区またはエパルキアと呼ばれる地理的領域を管轄する司教で構成される監督制の3つのレベルがあります。司教によって叙階され、地元の教区または修道会で働く司祭で構成される中会。そして、司教や司祭をさまざまな大臣の役割で支援する執事で構成された執事。最終的にカトリック教会全体を率いるのはローマの司教であり、一般に教皇と呼ばれ、その管轄は聖座。教区の構造と並行して、自律的に機能するさまざまな宗教機関があり、多くの場合、教皇の権威のみに服しますが、地元の司教に服することもあります。ほとんどの宗教機関には男性または女性のメンバーしかいませんが、両方を持っているものもあります。さらに、信徒は礼拝中に多くの典礼機能を支援します。

聖座、教皇庁、ローマ教皇庁、枢機卿団

フランシスは、第二百六十六カトリック教会の現在のローマ教皇のタイトル彼が保持して職権を通り、ローマの司教、そして主権バチカン市国の。彼は2013年の教皇会議で選出されました。
セントジョンラテランのArchbasilica、大聖堂のためのローマ司教区

カトリック教会の階層は、世界的なカトリック教会の指導者である教皇(ラテン語:パパ;「父」)として知られているローマの司教によって率いられています[注7][188]現在の教皇、フランシスは、2013年3月13日に教皇会議によって選出された。[189]

The office of the pope is known as the papacy. The Catholic Church holds that Christ instituted the papacy upon giving the keys of Heaven to Saint Peter. His ecclesiastical jurisdiction is called the "Holy See" (Sancta Sedes in Latin), or the "Apostolic See" (meaning the see of the apostle Peter).[190][191] Directly serving the pope is the Roman Curia, the central governing body that administers the day-to-day business of the Catholic Church.

The pope is also Sovereign of Vatican City,[192] a small city-state entirely enclaved within the city of Rome, which is an entity distinct from the Holy See. It is as head of the Holy See, not as head of Vatican City State, that the pope receives ambassadors of states and sends them his own diplomatic representatives.[193] The Holy See also confers orders, decorations and medals, such as the orders of chivalry originating from the Middle Ages.

While the famous Saint Peter's Basilica is located in Vatican City, above the traditional site of Saint Peter's tomb, the papal cathedral for the Diocese of Rome is the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran, located within the city of Rome, though enjoying extraterritorial privileges accredited to the Holy See.

The position of cardinal is a rank of honour bestowed by popes on certain clerics, such as leaders within the Roman Curia, bishops serving in major cities and distinguished theologians. For advice and assistance in governing, the pope may turn to the College of Cardinals.[194]

Following the death or resignation of a pope,[note 8] members of the College of Cardinals who are under age 80 act as an electoral college, meeting in a papal conclave to elect a successor.[196] Although the conclave may elect any male Catholic as pope, since 1389 only cardinals have been elected.[197]

Canon law

Canon law (Latin: jus canonicum)[198] is the system of laws and legal principles made and enforced by the hierarchical authorities of the Catholic Church to regulate its external organisation and government and to order and direct the activities of Catholics toward the mission of the church.[199] The canon law of the Latin Church was the first modern Western legal system[200] and is the oldest continuously functioning legal system in the West,[201][202] while the distinctive traditions of Eastern Catholic canon law govern the 23 Eastern Catholic particular churches sui iuris.

Positive ecclesiastical laws, based directly or indirectly upon immutable divine law or natural law, derive formal authority in the case of universal laws from promulgation by the supreme legislator—the Supreme Pontiff—who possesses the totality of legislative, executive and judicial power in his person,[203] while particular laws derive formal authority from promulgation by a legislator inferior to the supreme legislator, whether an ordinary or a delegated legislator. The actual subject material of the canons is not just doctrinal or moral in nature, but all-encompassing of the human condition. It has all the ordinary elements of a mature legal system:[204] laws, courts, lawyers, judges,[204] a fully articulated legal code for the Latin Church[205] as well as a code for the Eastern Catholic Churches,[205] principles of legal interpretation,[206] and coercive penalties.[207][208]

Canon law concerns the Catholic Church's life and organisation and is distinct from civil law. In its own field it gives force to civil law only by specific enactment in matters such as the guardianship of minors.[209] Similarly, civil law may give force in its field to canon law, but only by specific enactment, as with regard to canonical marriages.[210] Currently, the 1983 Code of Canon Law is in effect for the Latin Church.[211] The distinct 1990 Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches (CCEO, after the Latin initials) applies to the autonomous Eastern Catholic Churches.[212]

Latin and Eastern churches

In the first thousand years of Catholic history, different varieties of Christianity developed in the Western and Eastern Christian areas of Europe. Though most Eastern-tradition churches are no longer in communion with the Catholic Church after the Great Schism of 1054, autonomous particular churches of both traditions currently participate, also known as "churches sui iuris" (Latin: "of one's own right"). The largest and most well known is the Latin Church, the only Western-tradition church, with more than 1 billion members worldwide. Relatively small in terms of adherents compared to the Latin Church, are the 23 self-governing Eastern Catholic Churches with a combined membership of 17.3 million as of 2010.[213][214][215][216]

The Latin Church is governed by the pope and diocesan bishops directly appointed by him. The pope exercises a direct patriarchal role over the Latin Church, which is considered to form the original and still major part of Western Christianity, a heritage of certain beliefs and customs originating in Europe and northwestern Africa, some of which are inherited by many Christian denominations that trace their origins to the Protestant Reformation.[217]

The Eastern Catholic Churches follow the traditions and spirituality of Eastern Christianity and are churches that have always remained in full communion with the Catholic Church or who have chosen to re-enter full communion in the centuries following the East–West Schism and earlier divisions. These churches are communities of Catholic Christians whose forms of worship reflect distinct historical and cultural influences rather than differences in doctrine.

A church sui iuris is defined in the Code of Canons for the Eastern Churches as a "group of Christian faithful united by a hierarchy" that is recognised by the pope in his capacity as the supreme authority on matters of doctrine within the church.[218] The term is an innovation of the CCEO to denote the relative autonomy of the Eastern Catholic Churches,[219] who remain in full communion with the pope, but have governance structures and liturgical traditions separate from that of the Latin Church.[214] While the Latin Church's canons do not explicitly use the term, it is tacitly recognised as equivalent.

Some Eastern Catholic churches are governed by a patriarch who is elected by the synod of the bishops of that church,[220] others are headed by a major archbishop,[221] others are under a metropolitan,[222] and others are organised as individual eparchies.[223] Each church has authority over the particulars of its internal organisation, liturgical rites, liturgical calendar and other aspects of its spirituality, subject only to the authority of the pope.[224] The Roman Curia has a specific department, the Congregation for the Oriental Churches, to maintain relations with them.[225] The pope does not generally appoint bishops or clergy in the Eastern Catholic Churches, deferring to their internal governance structures, but may intervene if he feels it necessary.

Dioceses, parishes, organisations and institutes

Distribution of Catholics[226]
Percentage of Catholics by country (2010)
Number of Catholics by country (2010)

Individual countries, regions, or major cities are served by particular churches known as dioceses in the Latin Church, or eparchies in the Eastern Catholic Churches, each overseen by a bishop. As of 2008, the Catholic Church has 2,795 dioceses.[227] The bishops in a particular country are members of a national or regional episcopal conference.[228]

Dioceses are divided into parishes, each with one or more priests, deacons or lay ecclesial ministers.[229] Parishes are responsible for the day to day celebration of the sacraments and pastoral care of the laity.[230] As of 2016, there are 221,700 parishes worldwide.[231]

In the Latin Church, Catholic men may serve as deacons or priests by receiving sacramental ordination. Men and women may serve as extraordinary ministers of Holy Communion, as readers (lectors), or as altar servers. Historically, boys and men have only been permitted to serve as altar servers; however, since the 1990s, girls and women have also been permitted.[232][note 9]

Ordained Catholics, as well as members of the laity, may enter into consecrated life either on an individual basis, as a hermit or consecrated virgin, or by joining an institute of consecrated life (a religious institute or a secular institute) in which to take vows confirming their desire to follow the three evangelical counsels of chastity, poverty and obedience.[233] Examples of institutes of consecrated life are the Benedictines, the Carmelites, the Dominicans, the Franciscans, the Missionaries of Charity, the Legionaries of Christ and the Sisters of Mercy.[233]

"Religious institutes" is a modern term encompassing both "religious orders" and "religious congregations," which were once distinguished in canon law.[234] The terms "religious order" and "religious institute" tend to be used as synonyms colloquially.[235]

By means of Catholic charities and beyond, the Catholic Church is the largest non-government provider of education and health care in the world.[20]

Membership

Catholicism is the second largest religious body in the world, surpassed in size only by Sunni Islam.[236] Church membership, defined as baptised Catholics, was 1.345 billion at the end of 2019, which is 18% of the world population.[4] Brazil has the largest Catholic population in the world, followed by Mexico, Philippines, and the United States.[237] Catholics represent about half of all Christians.[238]

Geographic distribution of Catholics worldwide continues to shift, with 18.7% in Africa, 48.1% in the Americas, 11.0% Asia, 21.2% in Europe, and 0.8% in Oceania.[4]

Catholic ministers include ordained clergy, lay ecclesial ministers, missionaries, and catechists. Also as of the end of 2019, there were 467,938 ordained clergy, including 5,364 bishops, 414,336 priests (diocesan and religious), and 48,238 deacons (permanent).[4] Non-ordained ministers included 3,157,568 catechists, 367,679 lay missionaries, and 39,951 lay ecclesial ministers.[239]

Catholics who have committed to religious or consecrated life instead of marriage or single celibacy, as a state of life or relational vocation, include 54,559 male religious, 705,529 women religious. These are not ordained, nor generally considered ministers unless also engaged in one of the lay minister categories above.[240]

Doctrine

Catholic doctrine has developed over the centuries, reflecting direct teachings of early Christians, formal definitions of heretical and orthodox beliefs by ecumenical councils and in papal bulls, and theological debate by scholars. The church believes that it is continually guided by the Holy Spirit as it discerns new theological issues and is protected infallibly from falling into doctrinal error when a firm decision on an issue is reached.[241][242]

It teaches that revelation has one common source, God, and two distinct modes of transmission: Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition,[243][244] and that these are authentically interpreted by the Magisterium.[245][246] Sacred Scripture consists of the 73 books of the Catholic Bible, consisting of 46 Old Testament and 27 New Testament writings. Sacred Tradition consists of those teachings believed by the church to have been handed down since the time of the Apostles.[247] Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition are collectively known as the "deposit of faith" (depositum fidei in Latin). These are in turn interpreted by the Magisterium (from magister, Latin for "teacher"), the church's teaching authority, which is exercised by the pope and the College of Bishops in union with the pope, the Bishop of Rome.[248] Catholic doctrine is authoritatively summarised in the Catechism of the Catholic Church, published by the Holy See.[249][250]

Nature of God

C. 1210 manuscript version of the traditional Shield of the Trinity theological diagram

The Catholic Church holds that there is one eternal God, who exists as a perichoresis ("mutual indwelling") of three hypostases, or "persons": God the Father; God the Son; and God the Holy Spirit, which together are called the "Holy Trinity".[251]

Catholics believe that Jesus Christ is the "Second Person" of the Trinity, God the Son. In an event known as the Incarnation, through the power of the Holy Spirit, God became united with human nature through the conception of Christ in the womb of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Christ, therefore, is understood as being both fully divine and fully human, including possessing a human soul. It is taught that Christ's mission on earth included giving people his teachings and providing his example for them to follow as recorded in the four Gospels.[252] Jesus is believed to have remained sinless while on earth, and to have allowed himself to be unjustly executed by crucifixion, as a sacrifice of himself to reconcile humanity to God; this reconciliation is known as the Paschal Mystery.[253] The Greek term "Christ" and the Hebrew "Messiah" both mean "anointed one", referring to the Christian belief that Jesus' death and resurrection are the fulfilment of the Old Testament's messianic prophecies.[254]

The Catholic Church teaches dogmatically that "the Holy Spirit proceeds eternally from the Father and the Son, not as from two principles but as from one single principle".[255] It holds that the Father, as the "principle without principle", is the first origin of the Spirit, but also that he, as Father of the only Son, is with the Son the single principle from which the Spirit proceeds.[256] This belief is expressed in the Filioque clause which was added to the Latin version of the Nicene Creed of 381 but not included in the Greek versions of the creed used in Eastern Christianity.[257]

Nature of the church

The Catholic Church teaches that it is the "one true church",[10][258] "the universal sacrament of salvation for the human race",[259][260] and "the one true religion".[261] According to the Catechism, the Catholic Church is further described in the Nicene Creed as the "one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church".[262] These are collectively known as the Four Marks of the Church. The church teaches that its founder is Jesus Christ.[263][36] The New Testament records several events considered integral to the establishment of the Catholic Church, including Jesus' activities and teaching and his appointment of the apostles as witnesses to his ministry, suffering, and resurrection. The Great Commission, after his resurrection, instructed the apostles to continue his work. The coming of the Holy Spirit upon the apostles, in an event known as Pentecost, is seen as the beginning of the public ministry of the Catholic Church.[39] The church teaches that all duly consecrated bishops have a lineal succession from the apostles of Christ, known as apostolic succession.[264] In particular, the Bishop of Rome (the pope) is considered the successor to the apostle Simon Peter, a position from which he derives his supremacy over the church.[265]

Catholic belief holds that the church "is the continuing presence of Jesus on earth"[266] and that it alone possesses the full means of salvation.[267] Through the passion (suffering) of Christ leading to his crucifixion as described in the Gospels, it is said Christ made himself an oblation to God the Father in order to reconcile humanity to God;[268] the Resurrection of Jesus makes him the firstborn from the dead, the first among many brethren.[269] By reconciling with God and following Christ's words and deeds, an individual can enter the Kingdom of God.[270] The church sees its liturgy and sacraments as perpetuating the graces achieved through Christ's sacrifice to strengthen a person's relationship with Christ and aid in overcoming sin.[271]

Final judgement

The Catholic Church teaches that, immediately after death, the soul of each person will receive a particular judgement from God, based on their sins and their relationship to Christ.[272][273] This teaching also attests to another day when Christ will sit in universal judgement of all mankind. This final judgement, according to the church's teaching, will bring an end to human history and mark the beginning of both a new and better heaven and earth ruled by God in righteousness.[274]

Depending on the judgement rendered following death, it is believed that a soul may enter one of three states of the afterlife:

  • Heaven is a state of unending union with the divine nature of God, not ontologically, but by grace. It is an eternal life, in which the soul contemplates God in ceaseless beatitude.[275]
  • Purgatory is a temporary condition for the purification of souls who, although destined for Heaven, are not fully detached from sin and thus cannot enter Heaven immediately.[276] In Purgatory, the soul suffers, and is purged and perfected. Souls in purgatory may be aided in reaching heaven by the prayers of the faithful on earth and by the intercession of saints.[277]
  • Final Damnation: Finally, those who persist in living in a state of mortal sin and do not repent before death subject themselves to hell, an everlasting separation from God.[278] The church teaches that no one is condemned to hell without having freely decided to reject God.[279] No one is predestined to hell and no one can determine with absolute certainty who has been condemned to hell.[280] Catholicism teaches that through God's mercy a person can repent at any point before death, be illuminated with the truth of the Catholic faith, and thus obtain salvation.[281] Some Catholic theologians have speculated that the souls of unbaptised infants and non-Christians without mortal sin but who die in original sin are assigned to limbo, although this is not an official dogma of the church.[282]

While the Catholic Church teaches that it alone possesses the full means of salvation,[267] it also acknowledges that the Holy Spirit can make use of Christian communities separated from itself to "impel towards Catholic unity"[283] and "tend and lead toward the Catholic Church",[283] and thus bring people to salvation, because these separated communities contain some elements of proper doctrine, albeit admixed with errors. It teaches that anyone who is saved is saved through the Catholic Church but that people can be saved outside of the ordinary means known as baptism of desire, and by pre-baptismal martyrdom, known as baptism of blood, as well as when conditions of invincible ignorance are present, although invincible ignorance in itself is not a means of salvation.[284]

Saints and devotions

A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognised as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God, while canonisation is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the "canon", or list, of recognised saints.[285][286] The first persons honoured as saints were the martyrs. Pious legends of their deaths were considered affirmations of the truth of their faith in Christ. By the fourth century, however, "confessors"—people who had confessed their faith not by dying but by word and life—began to be venerated publicly.

In the Catholic Church, both in Latin and Eastern Catholic churches, the act of canonisation is reserved to the Apostolic See and occurs at the conclusion of a long process requiring extensive proof that the candidate for canonisation lived and died in such an exemplary and holy way that he is worthy to be recognised as a saint. The church's official recognition of sanctity implies that the person is now in Heaven and that he may be publicly invoked and mentioned officially in the liturgy of the church, including in the Litany of the Saints. Canonisation allows universal veneration of the saint in the liturgy of the Roman Rite; for permission to venerate merely locally, only beatification is needed.[287]

Devotions are "external practices of piety" which are not part of the official liturgy of the Catholic Church but are part of the popular spiritual practices of Catholics.[288] These include various practices regarding the veneration of the saints, especially veneration of the Virgin Mary. Other devotional practices include the Stations of the Cross, the Sacred Heart of Jesus, the Holy Face of Jesus,[289] the various scapulars, novenas to various saints,[290] pilgrimages[291] and devotions to the Blessed Sacrament,[290] and the veneration of saintly images such as the santos.[292] The bishops at the Second Vatican Council reminded Catholics that "devotions should be so drawn up that they harmonise with the liturgical seasons, accord with the sacred liturgy, are in some fashion derived from it, and lead the people to it, since, in fact, the liturgy by its very nature far surpasses any of them."[293]

Virgin Mary

The Blessed Virgin Mary is highly regarded in the Catholic Church, proclaiming her as Mother of God, free from original sin and an intercessor.

Catholic Mariology deals with the doctrines and teachings concerning the life of the Mary, mother of Jesus, as well as the veneration of Mary by the faithful. Mary is held in special regard, declared the Mother of God (Greek: Θεοτόκος, romanized: Theotokos, lit. 'God-bearer'), and believed as dogma to have remained a virgin throughout her life.[294] Further teachings include the doctrines of the Immaculate Conception (her own conception without the stain of original sin) and the Assumption of Mary (that her body was assumed directly into heaven at the end of her life). Both of these doctrines were defined as infallible dogma, by Pope Pius IX in 1854 and Pope Pius XII in 1950 respectively,[295] but only after consulting with the Catholic bishops throughout the world to ascertain that this is a Catholic belief.[296]

Devotions to Mary are part of Catholic piety but are distinct from the worship of God.[297] Practices include prayers and Marian art, music, and architecture. Several liturgical Marian feasts are celebrated throughout the Church Year and she is honoured with many titles such as Queen of Heaven. Pope Paul VI called her Mother of the Church because, by giving birth to Christ, she is considered to be the spiritual mother to each member of the Body of Christ.[295] Because of her influential role in the life of Jesus, prayers and devotions such as the Hail Mary, the Rosary, the Salve Regina and the Memorare are common Catholic practices.[298] Pilgrimage to the sites of several Marian apparitions affirmed by the church, such as Lourdes, Fátima, and Guadalupe,[299] are also popular Catholic devotions.[300]

Sacraments

Mass at the Grotto at Lourdes, France. The chalice is displayed to the people immediately after the consecration of the wine.

The Catholic Church teaches that it was entrusted with seven sacraments that were instituted by Christ. The number and nature of the sacraments were defined by several ecumenical councils, most recently the Council of Trent.[301][note 10] These are Baptism, Confirmation, the Eucharist, Penance, Anointing of the Sick (formerly called Extreme Unction, one of the "Last Rites"), Holy Orders and Holy Matrimony. Sacraments are visible rituals that Catholics see as signs of God's presence and effective channels of God's grace to all those who receive them with the proper disposition (ex opere operato).[302] The Catechism of the Catholic Church categorises the sacraments into three groups, the "sacraments of Christian initiation", "sacraments of healing" and "sacraments at the service of communion and the mission of the faithful". These groups broadly reflect the stages of people's natural and spiritual lives which each sacrament is intended to serve.[303]

The liturgies of the sacraments are central to the church's mission. According to the Catechism:

In the liturgy of the New Covenant every liturgical action, especially the celebration of the Eucharist and the sacraments, is an encounter between Christ and the Church. The liturgical assembly derives its unity from the "communion of the Holy Spirit" who gathers the children of God into the one Body of Christ. This assembly transcends racial, cultural, social—indeed, all human affinities.[304]

According to church doctrine, the sacraments of the church require the proper form, matter, and intent to be validly celebrated.[305] In addition, the Canon Laws for both the Latin Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches govern who may licitly celebrate certain sacraments, as well as strict rules about who may receive the sacraments.[306] Notably, because the church teaches that Christ is present in the Eucharist,[307] those who are conscious of being in a state of mortal sin are forbidden to receive the sacrament until they have received absolution through the sacrament of Reconciliation (Penance).[308] Catholics are normally obliged to abstain from eating for at least an hour before receiving the sacrament.[308] Non-Catholics are ordinarily prohibited from receiving the Eucharist as well.[306][309]

Catholics, even if they were in danger of death and unable to approach a Catholic minister, may not ask for the sacraments of the Eucharist, penance or anointing of the sick from someone, such as a Protestant minister, who is not known to be validly ordained in line with Catholic teaching on ordination.[310][311] Likewise, even in grave and pressing need, Catholic ministers may not administer these sacraments to those who do not manifest Catholic faith in the sacrament. In relation to the churches of Eastern Christianity not in communion with the Holy See, the Catholic Church is less restrictive, declaring that "a certain communion in sacris, and so in the Eucharist, given suitable circumstances and the approval of Church authority, is not merely possible but is encouraged."[312]

Sacraments of initiation

Baptism

Baptism of Augustine of Hippo as represented in a sculptural group in Troyes Cathedral (1549), France

As viewed by the Catholic Church, Baptism is the first of three sacraments of initiation as a Christian.[313] It washes away all sins, both original sin and personal actual sins.[314] It makes a person a member of the church.[315] As a gratuitous gift of God that requires no merit on the part of the person who is baptised, it is conferred even on children,[316] who, though they have no personal sins, need it on account of original sin.[317] If a new-born child is in a danger of death, anyone—be it a doctor, a nurse, or a parent—may baptise the child.[318] Baptism marks a person permanently and cannot be repeated.[319] The Catholic Church recognises as valid baptisms conferred even by people who are not Catholics or Christians, provided that they intend to baptise ("to do what the Church does when she baptises") and that they use the Trinitarian baptismal formula.[320]

Confirmation

The Catholic Church sees the sacrament of confirmation as required to complete the grace given in baptism.[321] When adults are baptised, confirmation is normally given immediately afterwards,[322] a practice followed even with newly baptised infants in the Eastern Catholic Churches.[323] In the West confirmation of children is delayed until they are old enough to understand or at the bishop's discretion.[324] In Western Christianity, particularly Catholicism, the sacrament is called confirmation, because it confirms and strengthens the grace of baptism; in the Eastern Churches, it is called chrismation, because the essential rite is the anointing of the person with chrism,[325] a mixture of olive oil and some perfumed substance, usually balsam, blessed by a bishop.[325][326] Those who receive confirmation must be in a state of grace, which for those who have reached the age of reason means that they should first be cleansed spiritually by the sacrament of Penance; they should also have the intention of receiving the sacrament, and be prepared to show in their lives that they are Christians.[327]

Eucharist

Pope Benedict XVI celebrates the Eucharist at the canonisation of Frei Galvão in São Paulo, Brazil on 11 May 2007

For Catholics, the Eucharist is the sacrament which completes Christian initiation. It is described as "the source and summit of the Christian life".[328] The ceremony in which a Catholic first receives the Eucharist is known as First Communion.[329]

The Eucharistic celebration, also called the Mass or Divine liturgy, includes prayers and scriptural readings, as well as an offering of bread and wine, which are brought to the altar and consecrated by the priest to become the body and the blood of Jesus Christ, a change called transubstantiation.[330][note 11] The words of consecration reflect the words spoken by Jesus during the Last Supper, where Christ offered his body and blood to his Apostles the night before his crucifixion. The sacrament re-presents (makes present) the sacrifice of Jesus on the cross,[331] and perpetuates it. Christ's death and resurrection give grace through the sacrament that unites the faithful with Christ and one another, remits venial sin, and aids against committing moral sin (though mortal sin itself is forgiven through the sacrament of penance).[332]

A Catholic believer prays in a church in Mexico

Sacraments of healing

The two sacraments of healing are the Sacrament of Penance and Anointing of the Sick.

Penance

The Sacrament of Penance (also called Reconciliation, Forgiveness, Confession, and Conversion[333]) exists for the conversion of those who, after baptism, separate themselves from Christ by sin.[334] Essential to this sacrament are acts both by the sinner (examination of conscience, contrition with a determination not to sin again, confession to a priest, and performance of some act to repair the damage caused by sin) and by the priest (determination of the act of reparation to be performed and absolution).[335] Serious sins (mortal sins) should be confessed at least once a year and always before receiving Holy Communion, while confession of venial sins also is recommended.[336] The priest is bound under the severest penalties to maintain the "seal of confession", absolute secrecy about any sins revealed to him in confession.[337]

Anointing of the sick

The Seven Sacraments Altarpiece triptych painting of Extreme Unction (Anointing of the Sick) with oil being administered by a priest during last rites. Rogier van der Weyden, c. 1445.

While chrism is used only for the three sacraments that cannot be repeated, a different oil is used by a priest or bishop to bless a Catholic who, because of illness or old age, has begun to be in danger of death.[338] This sacrament, known as Anointing of the Sick, is believed to give comfort, peace, courage and, if the sick person is unable to make a confession, even forgiveness of sins.[339]

The sacrament is also referred to as Unction, and in the past as Extreme Unction, and it is one of the three sacraments that constitute the last rites, together with Penance and Viaticum (Eucharist).[340]

Sacraments at the service of communion

According to the Catechism, there are two sacraments of communion directed towards the salvation of others: priesthood and marriage.[341] Within the general vocation to be a Christian, these two sacraments "consecrate to specific mission or vocation among the people of God. Men receive the holy orders to feed the Church by the word and grace. Spouses marry so that their love may be fortified to fulfil duties of their state".[342]

Holy Orders

Priests lay their hands on the ordinands during the rite of ordination.

The sacrament of Holy Orders consecrates and deputes some Christians to serve the whole body as members of three degrees or orders: episcopate (bishops), presbyterate (priests) and diaconate (deacons).[343][344] The church has defined rules on who may be ordained into the clergy. In the Latin Church, the priesthood is generally restricted to celibate men, and the episcopate is always restricted to celibate men.[345] Men who are already married may be ordained in certain Eastern Catholic churches in most countries,[346] and the personal ordinariates and may become deacons even in the Western Church[347][348] (see Clerical marriage). But after becoming a Catholic priest, a man may not marry (see Clerical celibacy) unless he is formally laicised.

All clergy, whether deacons, priests or bishops, may preach, teach, baptise, witness marriages and conduct funeral liturgies.[349] Only bishops and priests can administer the sacraments of the Eucharist, Reconciliation (Penance) and Anointing of the Sick.[350][351] Only bishops can administer the sacrament of Holy Orders, which ordains someone into the clergy.[352]

Matrimony

Wedding mass in the Philippines

The Catholic Church teaches that marriage is a social and spiritual bond between a man and a woman, ordered towards the good of the spouses and procreation of children; according to Catholic teachings on sexual morality, it is the only appropriate context for sexual activity. A Catholic marriage, or any marriage between baptised individuals of any Christian denomination, is viewed as a sacrament. A sacramental marriage, once consummated, cannot be dissolved except by death.[353][note 12] The church recognises certain conditions, such as freedom of consent, as required for any marriage to be valid; In addition, the church sets specific rules and norms, known as canonical form, that Catholics must follow.[356]

The church does not recognise divorce as ending a valid marriage and allows state-recognised divorce only as a means of protecting the property and well-being of the spouses and any children. However, consideration of particular cases by the competent ecclesiastical tribunal can lead to declaration of the invalidity of a marriage, a declaration usually referred to as an annulment.[357] Remarriage following a divorce is not permitted unless the prior marriage was declared invalid.[357]

Liturgy

Catholic religious objects – Holy Bible, crucifix and rosary

Among the 24 autonomous (sui iuris) churches, numerous liturgical and other traditions exist, called rites, which reflect historical and cultural diversity rather than differences in belief.[358] In the definition of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, "a rite is the liturgical, theological, spiritual, and disciplinary patrimony, culture and circumstances of history of a distinct people, by which its own manner of living the faith is manifested in each Church sui iuris".[359]

The liturgy of the sacrament of the Eucharist, called the Mass in the West and Divine Liturgy or other names in the East, is the principal liturgy of the Catholic Church.[360] This is because it is considered the propitiatory sacrifice of Christ himself.[361] Its most widely used form is that of the Roman Rite as promulgated by Paul VI in 1969 and revised by Pope John Paul II in 2002. In certain circumstances, the 1962 form of the Roman Rite remains authorised in the Latin Church. Eastern Catholic Churches have their own rites. The liturgies of the Eucharist and the other sacraments vary from rite to rite, reflecting different theological emphases.

Western rites

The Roman Rite is the most common rite of worship used by the Catholic Church. Its use is found worldwide, originating in Rome and spreading throughout Europe, influencing and eventually supplanting local rites.[362] The present ordinary form of Mass in the Roman Rite, found in the post-1969 editions of the Roman Missal, is usually celebrated in the local vernacular language, using an officially approved translation from the original text in Latin. An outline of its major liturgical elements can be found in the sidebar.

Elevation of the chalice before an altar after the consecration during a Solemn Mass of Tridentine Mass

In 2007, Pope Benedict XVI affirmed the licitness of continued use of the 1962 Roman Missal as an "extraordinary form" (forma extraordinaria) of the Roman Rite, speaking of it also as an usus antiquior ("older use"), and issuing new more permissive norms for its employment.[363] An instruction issued four years later spoke of the two forms or usages of the Roman Rite approved by the pope as the ordinary form and the extraordinary form ("the forma ordinaria" and "the forma extraordinaria").[364]

The 1962 edition of the Roman Missal, published a few months before the Second Vatican Council opened, was the last that presented the Mass as standardised in 1570 by Pope Pius V at the request of the Council of Trent and that is therefore known as the Tridentine Mass.[307] Pope Pius V's Roman Missal was subjected to minor revisions by Pope Clement VIII in 1604, Pope Urban VIII in 1634, Pope Pius X in 1911, Pope Pius XII in 1955, and Pope John XXIII in 1962. Each successive edition was the ordinary form of the Roman Rite Mass until superseded by a later edition. When the 1962 edition was superseded by that of Paul VI, promulgated in 1969, its continued use at first required permission from bishops;[365] but Pope Benedict XVI's 2007 motu proprio Summorum Pontificum allowed free use of it for Mass celebrated without a congregation and authorised parish priests to permit, under certain conditions, its use even at public Masses. Except for the scriptural readings, which Pope Benedict allowed to be proclaimed in the vernacular language, it is celebrated exclusively in liturgical Latin.[366]

Since 2014, clergy in the small personal ordinariates set up for groups of former Anglicans under the terms of the 2009 document Anglicanorum Coetibus[367] are permitted to use a variation of the Roman Rite called "Divine Worship" or, less formally, "Ordinariate Use",[368] which incorporates elements of the Anglican liturgy and traditions,[note 13] an accommodation protested by Anglican leaders.

In the Archdiocese of Milan, with around five million Catholics the largest in Europe,[369] Mass is celebrated according to the Ambrosian Rite. Other Latin Church rites include the Mozarabic[370] and those of some religious institutes.[371] These liturgical rites have an antiquity of at least 200 years before 1570, the date of Pope Pius V's Quo primum, and were thus allowed to continue.[372]

Eastern rites

East Syrian Rite wedding crowning celebrated by a bishop of the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church in India, one of the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the pope and the Catholic Church.

The Eastern Catholic Churches share common patrimony and liturgical rites as their counterparts, including Eastern Orthodox and other Eastern Christian churches who are no longer in communion with the Holy See. These include churches that historically developed in Russia, Caucasus, the Balkans, North Eastern Africa, India and the Middle East. The Eastern Catholic Churches are groups of faithful who have either never been out of communion with the Holy See or who have restored communion with it at the cost of breaking communion with their associates of the same tradition.[373]

The rites used by the Eastern Catholic Churches include the Byzantine Rite, in its Antiochian, Greek and Slavonic varieties; the Alexandrian Rite; the Syriac Rite; the Armenian Rite; the Maronite Rite and the Chaldean Rite. Eastern Catholic Churches have the autonomy to set the particulars of their liturgical forms and worship, within certain limits to protect the "accurate observance" of their liturgical tradition.[374] In the past some of the rites used by the Eastern Catholic Churches were subject to a degree of liturgical Latinisation. However, in recent years Eastern Catholic Churches have returned to traditional Eastern practices in accord with the Vatican II decree Orientalium Ecclesiarum.[375] Each church has its own liturgical calendar.[376]

Social and cultural issues

Catholic social teaching

Catholic social teaching, reflecting the concern Jesus showed for the impoverished, places a heavy emphasis on the corporal works of mercy and the spiritual works of mercy, namely the support and concern for the sick, the poor and the afflicted.[377][378] Church teaching calls for a preferential option for the poor while canon law prescribes that "The Christian faithful are also obliged to promote social justice and, mindful of the precept of the Lord, to assist the poor."[379] Its foundations are widely considered to have been laid by Pope Leo XIII's 1891 encyclical letter Rerum novarum which upholds the rights and dignity of labour and the right of workers to form unions.

Catholic teaching regarding sexuality calls for a practice of chastity, with a focus on maintaining the spiritual and bodily integrity of the human person. Marriage is considered the only appropriate context for sexual activity.[380] Church teachings about sexuality have become an issue of increasing controversy, especially after the close of the Second Vatican Council, due to changing cultural attitudes in the Western world described as the sexual revolution.

The church has also addressed stewardship of the natural environment, and its relationship to other social and theological teachings. In the document Laudato si', dated 24 May 2015, Pope Francis critiques consumerism and irresponsible development, and laments environmental degradation and global warming.[381] The pope expressed concern that the warming of the planet is a symptom of a greater problem: the developed world's indifference to the destruction of the planet as humans pursue short-term economic gains.[382]

Social services

Saint Teresa of Calcutta advocated for the sick, the poor and the needy by practicing the acts of corporal works of mercy.

The Catholic Church is the largest non-government provider of education and medical services in the world.[20] In 2010, the Catholic Church's Pontifical Council for Pastoral Assistance to Health Care Workers said that the church manages 26% of health care facilities in the world, including hospitals, clinics, orphanages, pharmacies and centres for those with leprosy.[383]

The church has always been involved in education, since the founding of the first universities of Europe. It runs and sponsors thousands of primary and secondary schools, colleges and universities throughout the world[384][385] and operates the world's largest non-governmental school system.[386]

Religious institutes for women have played a particularly prominent role in the provision of health and education services,[387] as with orders such as the Sisters of Mercy, Little Sisters of the Poor, the Missionaries of Charity, the Sisters of St. Joseph of the Sacred Heart, the Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament and the Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul.[388] The Catholic nun Mother Teresa of Calcutta, India, founder of the Missionaries of Charity, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 for her humanitarian work among India's poor.[389] Bishop Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo won the same award in 1996 for "work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor".[390]

The church is also actively engaged in international aid and development through organisations such as Catholic Relief Services, Caritas International, Aid to the Church in Need, refugee advocacy groups such as the Jesuit Refugee Service and community aid groups such as the Saint Vincent de Paul Society.[391]

Sexual morality

Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling

The Catholic Church calls all members to practise chastity according to their state in life. Chastity includes temperance, self-mastery, personal and cultural growth, and divine grace. It requires refraining from lust, masturbation, fornication, pornography, prostitution and rape. Chastity for those who are not married requires living in continence, abstaining from sexual activity; those who are married are called to conjugal chastity.[392]

In the church's teaching, sexual activity is reserved to married couples, whether in a sacramental marriage among Christians or in a natural marriage where one or both spouses are unbaptised. Even in romantic relationships, particularly engagement to marriage, partners are called to practise continence, in order to test mutual respect and fidelity.[393] Chastity in marriage requires in particular conjugal fidelity and protecting the fecundity of marriage. The couple must foster trust and honesty as well as spiritual and physical intimacy. Sexual activity must always be open to the possibility of life;[394] the church calls this the procreative significance. It must likewise always bring a couple together in love; the church calls this the unitive significance.[395]

Contraception and certain other sexual practices are not permitted, although natural family planning methods are permitted to provide healthy spacing between births, or to postpone children for a just reason.[396] Pope Francis said in 2015 that he is worried that the church has grown "obsessed" with issues such as abortion, same-sex marriage and contraception and has criticised the Catholic Church for placing dogma before love, and for prioritising moral doctrines over helping the poor and marginalised.[397][398]

Divorce and declarations of nullity

Canon law makes no provision for divorce between baptised individuals, as a valid, consummated sacramental marriage is considered to be a lifelong bond.[399] However, a declaration of nullity may be granted when the proof is produced that essential conditions for contracting a valid marriage were absent from the beginning—in other words, that the marriage was not valid due to some impediment. A declaration of nullity, commonly called an annulment, is a judgement on the part of an ecclesiastical tribunal determining that a marriage was invalidly attempted.[400] In addition, marriages among unbaptised individuals may be dissolved with papal permission under certain situations, such as a desire to marry a Catholic, under Pauline or Petrine privilege.[354][355] An attempt at remarriage following divorce without a declaration of nullity places "the remarried spouse … in a situation of public and permanent adultery". An innocent spouse who lives in continence following divorce, or couples who live in continence following a civil divorce for a grave cause, do not sin.[401]

Worldwide, diocesan tribunals completed over 49000 cases for nullity of marriage in 2006. Over the past 30 years about 55 to 70% of annulments have occurred in the United States. The growth in annulments has been substantial; in the United States, 27,000 marriages were annulled in 2006, compared to 338 in 1968. However, approximately 200,000 married Catholics in the United States divorce each year; 10 million total as of 2006.[402][note 14] Divorce is increasing in some predominantly Catholic countries in Europe.[404] In some predominantly Catholic countries, it is only in recent years that divorce was introduced (e.g. Italy (1970), Portugal (1975), Brazil (1977), Spain (1981), Ireland (1996), Chile (2004) and Malta (2011), while the Philippines and the Vatican City have no procedure for divorce. (The Philippines does, however, allow divorce for Muslims.)

Contraception

Pope Paul VI issued Humanae vitae on 25 July 1968.

The church teaches that sexual intercourse should only take place between a man and woman who are married to each other, and should be without the use of birth control or contraception. In his encyclical Humanae vitae[405] (1968), Pope Paul VI firmly rejected all contraception, thus contradicting dissenters in the church that saw the birth control pill as an ethically justifiable method of contraception, though he permitted the regulation of births by means of natural family planning. This teaching was continued especially by John Paul II in his encyclical Evangelium Vitae, where he clarified the church's position on contraception, abortion and euthanasia by condemning them as part of a "culture of death" and calling instead for a "culture of life".[406]

Many Western Catholics have voiced significant disagreement with the church's teaching on contraception.[407] Catholics for Choice, a political lobbyist group that is not associated with the Catholic Church, stated in 1998 that 96% of U.S. Catholic women had used contraceptives at some point in their lives and that 72% of Catholics believed that one could be a good Catholic without obeying the church's teaching on birth control.[408] Use of natural family planning methods among United States Catholics purportedly is low, although the number cannot be known with certainty.[note 15] As Catholic health providers are among the largest providers of services to patients with HIV/AIDS worldwide, there is significant controversy within and outside the church regarding the use of condoms as a means of limiting new infections, as condom use ordinarily constitutes prohibited contraceptive use.[411]

Similarly, the Catholic Church opposes artificial insemination regardless of whether it is homologous (from the husband) or heterologous (from a donor) and in vitro fertilisation (IVF), saying that the artificial process replaces the love and conjugal act between a husband and wife.[412] In addition, it opposes IVF because it might cause disposal of embryos; Catholics believe an embryo is an individual with a soul who must be treated as such.[413] For this reason, the church also opposes abortion.[414]

Homosexuality

The Catholic Church also teaches that "homosexual acts" are "contrary to the natural law", "acts of grave depravity" and "under no circumstances can they be approved", but that persons experiencing homosexual tendencies must be accorded respect and dignity.[415] According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church,

The number of men and women who have deep-seated homosexual tendencies is not negligible. This inclination, which is objectively disordered, constitutes for most of them a trial. They must be accepted with respect, compassion, and sensitivity. Every sign of unjust discrimination in their regard should be avoided… Homosexual persons are called to chastity. By the virtues of self-mastery that teach them inner freedom, at times by the support of disinterested friendship, by prayer and sacramental grace, they can and should gradually and resolutely approach Christian perfection.[416]

This part of the Catechism was quoted by Pope Francis in a 2013 press interview in which he remarked, when asked about an individual:

I think that when you encounter a person like this [the individual he was asked about], you must make a distinction between the fact of a person being gay from the fact of being a lobby, because lobbies, all are not good. That is bad. If a person is gay and seeks the Lord and has good will, well who am I to judge them?[417]

This remark and others made in the same interview were seen as a change in the tone, but not in the substance of the teaching of the church,[418] which includes opposition to same-sex marriage.[419] Certain dissenting Catholic groups oppose the position of the Catholic Church and seek to change it.[420]

Holy orders and women

Women and men religious engage in a variety of occupations, from contemplative prayer, to teaching, to providing health care, to working as missionaries.[387][421] While Holy Orders are reserved for men, Catholic women have played diverse roles in the life of the church, with religious institutes providing a formal space for their participation and convents providing spaces for their self-government, prayer and influence through many centuries. Religious sisters and nuns have been extensively involved in developing and running the church's worldwide health and education service networks.[422]

Efforts in support of the ordination of women to the priesthood led to several rulings by the Roman Curia or popes against the proposal, as in Declaration on the Question of the Admission of Women to the Ministerial Priesthood (1976), Mulieris Dignitatem (1988) and Ordinatio sacerdotalis (1994). According to the latest ruling, found in Ordinatio sacerdotalis, Pope John Paul II affirmed that the Catholic Church "does not consider herself authorised to admit women to priestly ordination".[423] In defiance of these rulings, opposition groups such as Roman Catholic Womenpriests have performed ceremonies they affirm as sacramental ordinations (with, reputedly, an ordaining male Catholic bishop in the first few instances) which, according to canon law, are both illicit and invalid and considered mere simulations[424] of the sacrament of ordination.[425][note 16] The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith responded by issuing a statement clarifying that any Catholic bishops involved in ordination ceremonies for women, as well as the women themselves if they were Catholic, would automatically receive the penalty of excommunication (latae sententiae, literally "with the sentence already applied", i.e. automatically), citing canon 1378 of canon law and other church laws.[426]

Sexual abuse cases

From the 1990s, the issue of sexual abuse of minors by Catholic clergy and other church members has become the subject of civil litigation, criminal prosecution, media coverage and public debate in countries around the world. The Catholic Church has been criticised for its handling of abuse complaints when it became known that some bishops had shielded accused priests, transferring them to other pastoral assignments where some continued to commit sexual offences.

In response to the scandal, formal procedures have been established to help prevent abuse, encourage the reporting of any abuse that occurs and to handle such reports promptly, although groups representing victims have disputed their effectiveness.[427] In 2014, Pope Francis instituted the Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors for the safeguarding of minors.[428]

See also

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  • Anti-Catholicism
  • Catechism of the Catholic Church
  • Catholic Church by country
  • Catholic spirituality
  • Criticism of the Catholic Church
  • Glossary of the Catholic Church
  • List of Catholic religious institutes
  • Lists of Catholics
  • Role of Christianity in civilisation

Notes

  1. ^ While the Catholic Church considers itself to be the authentic continuation of the Christian community founded by Jesus Christ, it teaches that other Christian churches and communities can be in an imperfect communion with the Catholic Church.[12][13]
  2. ^ Quote of St Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans (c. 110 AD): "Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be, even as where Jesus may be, there is the universal [katholike] Church."[24]
  3. ^ Examples uses of "Roman Catholic" by the Holy See: the encyclicals Divini Illius Magistri Archived 23 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine of Pope Pius XI and Humani generis Archived 19 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine of Pope Pius XII; joint declarations signed by Pope Benedict XVI with Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams on 23 November 2006 Archived 2 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine and Patriarch Bartholomew I of Constantinople on 30 November 2006.
  4. ^ Example use of "Roman" Catholic by a bishop's conference: The Baltimore Catechism, an official catechism authorised by the Catholic bishops of the United States, states: "That is why we are called Roman Catholics; to show that we are united to the real successor of St Peter" (Question 118) and refers to the church as the "Roman Catholic Church" under Questions 114 and 131 (Baltimore Catechism).
  5. ^ Joyce, George (1913). "The Pope" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
    Regarding Peter as the first Bishop of Rome, "It is not, however, difficult to show that the fact of his [Peter's] bishopric is so well attested as to be historically certain. In considering this point, it will be well to begin with the third century, when references to it become frequent and work backwards from this point. In the middle of the third century St. Cyprian expressly terms the Roman See the Chair of St. Peter, saying that Cornelius has succeeded to "the place of Fabian which is the place of Peter" (Ep 55:8; cf. 59:14). Firmilian of Caesarea notices that Stephen claimed to decide the controversy regarding rebaptism on the ground that he held the succession from Peter (Cyprian, Ep. 75:17). He does not deny the claim: yet certainly, had he been able, he would have done so. Thus in 250, the Roman episcopate of Peter was admitted by those best able to know the truth, not merely at Rome but in the churches of Africa and of Asia Minor. In the first quarter of the century (about 220) Tertullian (De Pud. 21) mentions Callistus's claim that Peter's power to forgive sins had descended in a special manner to him. Had the Roman Church been merely founded by Peter and not reckoned him as its first bishop, there could have been no ground for such a contention. Tertullian, like Firmilian, had every motive to deny the claim. Moreover, he had himself resided at Rome, and would have been well aware if the idea of a Roman episcopate of Peter had been, as is contended by its opponents, a novelty dating from the first years of the third century, supplanting the older tradition according to which Peter and Paul were co-founders and Linus first bishop. About the same period, Hippolytus (for Lightfoot is surely right in holding him to be the author of the first part of the "Liberian Catalogue" – "Clement of Rome", 1:259) reckons Peter in the list of Roman bishops…"[46]
  6. ^ While ruling contraception to be prohibited, Pope Paul VI did, however, consider natural family planning methods to be morally permissible if used with just cause.
  7. ^ According to Catholic teaching, Jesus Christ is the 'invisible Head' of the Church[183][184][185] while the pope is the 'visible Head'.[186][187]
  8. ^ The last resignation occurred on 28 February 2013, when Pope Benedict XVI retired, citing ill health in his advanced age. The next most recent resignation occurred in 1415, as part of the Council of Constance's resolution of the Avignon Papacy.[195]
  9. ^ In 1992, the Vatican clarified the 1983 Code of Canon Law removed the requirement that altar servers be male; permission to use female altar servers within a diocese is at the discretion of the bishop.[232]
  10. ^ Other councils that addressed the sacraments include the Second Council of Lyon (1274); Council of Florence (1439); as well as the Council of Trent (1547)[301]
  11. ^ For an outline of the Eucharistic liturgy in the Roman Rite, see the side bar in the "Worship and liturgy".
  12. ^ Marriages involving unbaptised individuals are considered valid, but not sacramental. While sacramental marriages are insoluble, non-sacramental marriages may be dissolved under certain situations, such as a desire to marry a Catholic, under Pauline or Petrine privilege.[354][355]
  13. ^ The Divine Worship variant of the Roman Rite differs from the "Anglican Use" variant, which was introduced in 1980 for the few United States parishes established in accordance with a pastoral provision for former members of the Episcopal Church (the American branch of the Anglican Communion). Both uses adapted Anglican liturgical traditions for use within the Catholic Church.
  14. ^ With regard to divorce in the United States, according to the Barna Group, among all who have been married, 33% have been divorced at least once; among American Catholics, 28% (the study did not track religious annulments).[403]
  15. ^ Regarding use of natural family planning, in 2002, 24% of the U.S. population identified as Catholic,[409] but according to a 2002 study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, of sexually active Americans avoiding pregnancy, only 1.5% were using NFP.[410]
  16. ^ According to Roman Catholic Womanpriests: "The principal consecrating Roman Catholic male bishop who ordained our first women bishops is a bishop with apostolic succession within the Roman Catholic Church in full communion with the pope."[425]

References

  • NOTE: CCC stands for Catechism of the Catholic Church. The number following CCC is the paragraph number, of which there are 2865. The numbers cited in the Compendium of the CCC are question numbers, of which there are 598. Canon law citations from the 1990 Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches are labelled "CCEO, Canon xxx", to distinguish from canons of the 1983 Code of Canon Law, which are labelled "Canon xxx".
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  2. ^ Stanford, Peter. "Roman Catholic Church". BBC Religions. BBC. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
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  7. ^ Mark A. Noll. The New Shape of World Christianity (Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2009), 191.
  8. ^ a b O'Collins, p. v (preface).
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  12. ^ "Responses to Some Questions regarding Certain Aspects of the Doctrine of the Church". Vatican.va. Archived from the original on 13 August 2013. It is possible, according to Catholic doctrine, to affirm correctly that the Church of Christ is present and operative in the churches and ecclesial communities not yet fully in communion with the Catholic Church, on account of the elements of sanctification and truth that are present in them.
  13. ^ "Declaration on the Unicity and Salvific Universality of Jesus Christ and the Church Dominus Iesus § 17". Vatican.va. Therefore, there exists a single Church of Christ, which subsists in the Catholic Church, governed by the Successor of Peter and by the Bishops in communion with him. The Churches which, while not existing in perfect Koinonia with the Catholic Church, remain united to her by means of the closest bonds, that is, by apostolic succession and a valid Eucharist, are true particular churches. Therefore, the Church of Christ is present and operative also in these Churches, even though they lack full communion with the Catholic Church since they do not accept the Catholic doctrine of the Primacy, which, according to the will of God, the Bishop of Rome objectively has and exercises over the entire Church. … 'The Christian faithful are therefore not permitted to imagine that the Church of Christ is nothing more than a collection—divided, yet in some way one—of Churches and ecclesial communities; nor are they free to hold that today the Church of Christ nowhere really exists, and must be considered only as a goal which all Churches and ecclesial communities must strive to reach.'
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External links

  • Vatican.va Holy See official website
  • The Vatican's channel on YouTube