自然環境

Hashtags #自然環境

自然環境組成et地質活動

自然環境自然界にはすべて網羅生活と非生物のものが発生し、自然ではない、この場合には意味、人工。この用語は、ほとんどの場合、地球または地球の一部に適用されます。この環境には、人間の生存と経済活動に影響を与えるすべての生物気候、天候、天然資源の相互作用が含まれます。[1]自然環境の概念は、次の要素として区別できます。

土地管理は、 オーストラリアホープタウン滝の自然の特徴を維持し ながら、訪問者に十分なアクセスを許可しています。
衛星からのサハラ砂漠の画像 。世界最大の暑い砂漠であり、極地の砂漠に次ぐ3番目に大きな 砂漠です。

自然環境とは対照的に、構築された環境です。都市環境や農地転換など、人間が根本的に景観を変えてきた地域では、自然環境が単純化された人間環境に大きく変化します。でも、このような泥の構築として、あまり極端に思えた行為小屋太陽光発電システム砂漠を、変更された環境は、人工のものとなります。多くの動物は自分たちにより良い環境を提供するために物を作りますが、それらは人間ではないので、ビーバーダムマウンドを作るシロアリの働きは自然であると考えられています。

人々は地球上で絶対に自然な環境を見つけることはめったになく、自然は通常、一方の極端な100%自然から、もう一方の極端な0%自然まで連続して変化します。より正確には、環境のさまざまな側面や構成要素を検討し、それらの自然度が均一ではないことを確認できます。[2]たとえば、農業分野では、鉱物学的組成とその土壌の構造は、乱されていない森林土壌のものと類似していますが、構造はまったく異なります。

自然環境は、生息地の同義語としてよく使用されます。たとえば、キリンの自然環境はサバンナであると言えます。

火山の割れ目や 溶岩チャンネル
地球の層状構造:(1)内核; (2)外核; (3)メソスフェア; (4) 上部マントル; (5)リソスフェア; (6)クラスト

地球科学は一般に、リソスフェア、水圏、大気、生物圏の4つの球体を、それぞれ岩石、水、空気、生命に対応するものとして認識しています[3]。一部の科学者は、地球の球の一部として、水圏の別個の部分としての雪氷圏(氷に対応)、およびアクティブで混合された球としての土壌圏(土壌に対応)を含みます。地球科学(地球科学、地理科学、または地球科学としても知られています)は、地球に関連する科学の包括的な用語です。[4]地球科学には、地理学、地質学、地球物理学、測地学の4つの主要な分野があります。これらの主要な分野では、物理学、化学、生物学、年表、数学を使用して、地球の主要な領域または球体の定性的および定量的な理解を構築します。

地球の地殻、またはリソスフェアは、惑星の最も外側の固体表面であり、化学的および機械的に基礎となる異なるマントル。それは、マグマが冷えて固化して固い岩を形成する火成岩のプロセスによって大きく生成されました。リソスフェアの下には、放射性元素の崩壊によって加熱されたマントルがあります。固体であるがマントルはレイク対流の状態にある。この対流プロセスにより、リソスフェアプレートはゆっくりではありますが移動します。結果として生じるプロセスは、プレートテクトニクスとして知られています。火山は主に、沈み込んだ地殻物質の融解、または中央海嶺とマントルプルームでのマントルの上昇から生じます。

サンゴ礁には、重要な海洋 生物多様性があります。

ほとんどの水は、さまざまな種類の自然の水域に含まれています。

オーシャンズ

海はの主要な体である食塩水、および水圏のコンポーネント。地球の表面の約71%(約3億6200万平方キロメートルの面積)は海で覆われています。海は、通常、いくつかの主要な海と小さな海に分割されている連続した水域です。このエリアの半分以上は、3,000メートル(9,800フィート)以上の深さです。平均海洋塩分は約35である千当たりの部(PPT)(3.5%)、ほぼ全ての海水は、30〜38 PPTの範囲の塩分を有します。一般にいくつかの別々の海として認識されていますが、これらの水は、世界の海または世界の海と呼ばれることが多い、1つのグローバルな相互接続された塩水の塊を構成します。[5] [6]深海底は地球の表面の半分以上であり、最も変化の少ない自然環境の1つです。主要な海洋部門は、によって部分的に規定されている大陸、様々な群島、およびその他の基準:これらの部門がある(サイズの降順で)太平洋、大西洋、インド洋、南極海と北極海を。

河川

川は自然の水路であり[7]、通常は淡水であり、海、湖、海、または別の川に向かって流れます。いくつかの川は単に地面に流れ込み、別の水域に到達することなく完全に乾きます。

米国ハワイ州の岩だらけの小川

川の水は通常、堤防間の川床で構成された水路にあります。より大きな川では、水路を越えた水によって形作られたより広い氾濫原もしばしばあります。氾濫原は、河道の大きさに比べて非常に広い場合があります。河川は水循環の一部です。河川内の水は、一般に、表面流出、地下水涵養、湧水、氷河や積雪に蓄えられた水の放出による降水から集められます。

小河川も含め、いくつかの他の名前で呼ばれることも、ストリーム、小川と小川。彼らの流れは、ベッドと小川の土手に閉じ込められています。河川は、断片化された生息地をつなぎ、したがって生物多様性を保護する上で重要な回廊の役割を果たします。一般に、小川や水路の研究は地表水文学として知られています。[8]

Lácar Lake, of glacial origin, in the province of Neuquén, Argentina

A lake (from Latin lacus) is a terrain feature, a body of water that is localized to the bottom of basin. A body of water is considered a lake when it is inland, is not part of an ocean, and is larger and deeper than a pond.[9][10]

A swamp area in Everglades National Park, Florida, US.

Natural lakes on Earth are generally found in mountainous areas, rift zones, and areas with ongoing or recent glaciation. Other lakes are found in endorheic basins or along the courses of mature rivers. In some parts of the world, there are many lakes because of chaotic drainage patterns left over from the last Ice Age. All lakes are temporary over geologic time scales, as they will slowly fill in with sediments or spill out of the basin containing them.

Ponds

A pond is a body of standing water, either natural or man-made, that is usually smaller than a lake. A wide variety of man-made bodies of water are classified as ponds, including water gardens designed for aesthetic ornamentation, fish ponds designed for commercial fish breeding, and solar ponds designed to store thermal energy. Ponds and lakes are distinguished from streams by their current speed. While currents in streams are easily observed, ponds and lakes possess thermally driven micro-currents and moderate wind driven currents. These features distinguish a pond from many other aquatic terrain features, such as stream pools and tide pools.

Human impact on water

Humans impact the water in different ways such as modifying rivers (through dams and stream channelization), urbanization, and deforestation. These impact lake levels, groundwater conditions, water pollution, thermal pollution, and marine pollution. Humans modify rivers by using direct channel manipulation.[11] We build dams and reservoirs and manipulate the direction of the rivers and water path. Dams can usefully create reservoirs and hydroelectric power. However, reservoirs and dams may negatively impact the environment and wildlife. Dams stop fish migration and the movement of organisms downstream. Urbanization affects the environment because of deforestation and changing lake levels, groundwater conditions, etc. Deforestation and urbanization go hand in hand. Deforestation may cause flooding, declining stream flow, and changes in riverside vegetation. The changing vegetation occurs because when trees cannot get adequate water they start to deteriorate, leading to a decreased food supply for the wildlife in an area.[11]

Atmospheric gases scatter blue light more than other wavelengths, creating a blue halo when seen from space.
A view of Earth's troposphere from an airplane
Lightning is an atmospheric discharge of electricity accompanied by thunder, which occurs during thunderstorms and certain other natural conditions. [12]

The atmosphere of the Earth serves as a key factor in sustaining the planetary ecosystem. The thin layer of gases that envelops the Earth is held in place by the planet's gravity. Dry air consists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% argon and other inert gases, and carbon dioxide. The remaining gases are often referred to as trace gases.[13] The atmosphere includes greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Filtered air includes trace amounts of many other chemical compounds. Air also contains a variable amount of water vapor and suspensions of water droplets and ice crystals seen as clouds. Many natural substances may be present in tiny amounts in an unfiltered air sample, including dust, pollen and spores, sea spray, volcanic ash, and meteoroids. Various industrial pollutants also may be present, such as chlorine (elementary or in compounds), fluorine compounds, elemental mercury, and sulphur compounds such as sulphur dioxide (SO2).

The ozone layer of the Earth's atmosphere plays an important role in reducing the amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation that reaches the surface. As DNA is readily damaged by UV light, this serves to protect life at the surface. The atmosphere also retains heat during the night, thereby reducing the daily temperature extremes.

Layers of the atmosphere

Principal layers

Earth's atmosphere can be divided into five main layers. These layers are mainly determined by whether temperature increases or decreases with altitude. From highest to lowest, these layers are:

  • Exosphere: The outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere extends from the exobase upward, mainly composed of hydrogen and helium.
  • Thermosphere: The top of the thermosphere is the bottom of the exosphere, called the exobase. Its height varies with solar activity and ranges from about 350–800 km (220–500 mi; 1,150,000–2,620,000 ft). The International Space Station orbits in this layer, between 320 and 380 km (200 and 240 mi).
  • Mesosphere: The mesosphere extends from the stratopause to 80–85 km (50–53 mi; 262,000–279,000 ft). It is the layer where most meteors burn up upon entering the atmosphere.
  • Stratosphere: The stratosphere extends from the tropopause to about 51 km (32 mi; 167,000 ft). The stratopause, which is the boundary between the stratosphere and mesosphere, typically is at 50 to 55 km (31 to 34 mi; 164,000 to 180,000 ft).
  • Troposphere: The troposphere begins at the surface and extends to between 7 km (23,000 ft) at the poles and 17 km (56,000 ft) at the equator, with some variation due to weather. The troposphere is mostly heated by transfer of energy from the surface, so on average the lowest part of the troposphere is warmest and temperature decreases with altitude. The tropopause is the boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere.
Other layers

Within the five principal layers determined by temperature there are several layers determined by other properties.

  • The ozone layer is contained within the stratosphere. It is mainly located in the lower portion of the stratosphere from about 15–35 km (9.3–21.7 mi; 49,000–115,000 ft), though the thickness varies seasonally and geographically. About 90% of the ozone in our atmosphere is contained in the stratosphere.
  • The ionosphere, the part of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation, stretches from 50 to 1,000 km (31 to 621 mi; 160,000 to 3,280,000 ft) and typically overlaps both the exosphere and the thermosphere. It forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere.
  • The homosphere and heterosphere: The homosphere includes the troposphere, stratosphere, and mesosphere. The upper part of the heterosphere is composed almost completely of hydrogen, the lightest element.
  • The planetary boundary layer is the part of the troposphere that is nearest the Earth's surface and is directly affected by it, mainly through turbulent diffusion.

Effects of global warming

The retreat of glaciers since 1850 of Aletsch Glacier in the Swiss Alps (situation in 1979, 1991 and 2002), due to global warming

The dangers of global warming are being increasingly studied by a wide global consortium of scientists.[14] These scientists are increasingly concerned about the potential long-term effects of global warming on our natural environment and on the planet. Of particular concern is how climate change and global warming caused by anthropogenic, or human-made releases of greenhouse gases, most notably carbon dioxide, can act interactively, and have adverse effects upon the planet, its natural environment and humans' existence. It is clear the planet is warming, and warming rapidly. This is due to the greenhouse effect, which is caused by greenhouse gases, which trap heat inside the Earth's atmosphere because of their more complex molecular structure which allows them to vibrate and in turn trap heat and release it back towards the Earth.[15] This warming is also responsible for the extinction of natural habitats, which in turn leads to a reduction in wildlife population.The most recent report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (the group of the leading climate scientists in the world) concluded that the earth will warm anywhere from 2.7 to almost 11 degrees Fahrenheit (1.5 to 6 degrees Celsius) between 1990 and 2100.[16] Efforts have been increasingly focused on the mitigation of greenhouse gases that are causing climatic changes, on developing adaptative strategies to global warming, to assist humans, other animal, and plant species, ecosystems, regions and nations in adjusting to the effects of global warming. Some examples of recent collaboration to address climate change and global warming include:

Another view of the Aletsch Glacier in the Swiss Alps, which because of global warming has been decreasing
  • The United Nations Framework Convention Treaty and convention on Climate Change, to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.[17]
  • The Kyoto Protocol, which is the protocol to the international Framework Convention on Climate Change treaty, again with the objective of reducing greenhouse gases in an effort to prevent anthropogenic climate change.[18]
  • The Western Climate Initiative, to identify, evaluate, and implement collective and cooperative ways to reduce greenhouse gases in the region, focusing on a market-based cap-and-trade system.[19]

A significantly profound challenge is to identify the natural environmental dynamics in contrast to environmental changes not within natural variances. A common solution is to adapt a static view neglecting natural variances to exist. Methodologically, this view could be defended when looking at processes which change slowly and short time series, while the problem arrives when fast processes turns essential in the object of the study.

Climate

Map of world dividing climate zones, largely influenced by latitude. The zones, going from the equator upward (and downward) are Tropical, Dry, Moderate, Continental and Polar. There are subzones within these zones.
Worldwide climate classifications map

Climate looks at the statistics of temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, atmospheric particle count and other meteorological elements in a given region over long periods of time.[20] Weather, on the other hand, is the present condition of these same elements over periods up to two weeks.[21]

Climates can be classified according to the average and typical ranges of different variables, most commonly temperature and precipitation. The most commonly used classification scheme is the one originally developed by Wladimir Köppen. The Thornthwaite system,[22] in use since 1948, uses evapotranspiration as well as temperature and precipitation information to study animal species diversity and the potential impacts of climate changes.[23]

Weather

A rainbow is an optical and meteorological phenomenon that causes a spectrum of light to appear in the sky when the Sun shines onto droplets of moisture in the Earth's atmosphere.

Weather is a set of all the phenomena occurring in a given atmospheric area at a given time.[24] Most weather phenomena occur in the troposphere,[25][26] just below the stratosphere. Weather refers, generally, to day-to-day temperature and precipitation activity, whereas climate is the term for the average atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time.[27] When used without qualification, "weather" is understood to be the weather of Earth.

Weather occurs due to density (temperature and moisture) differences between one place and another. These differences can occur due to the sun angle at any particular spot, which varies by latitude from the tropics. The strong temperature contrast between polar and tropical air gives rise to the jet stream. Weather systems in the mid-latitudes, such as extratropical cyclones, are caused by instabilities of the jet stream flow. Because the Earth's axis is tilted relative to its orbital plane, sunlight is incident at different angles at different times of the year. On the Earth's surface, temperatures usually range ±40 °C (100 °F to −40 °F) annually. Over thousands of years, changes in the Earth's orbit have affected the amount and distribution of solar energy received by the Earth and influence long-term climate

Surface temperature differences in turn cause pressure differences. Higher altitudes are cooler than lower altitudes due to differences in compressional heating. Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere for a future time and a given location. The atmosphere is a chaotic system, and small changes to one part of the system can grow to have large effects on the system as a whole. Human attempts to control the weather have occurred throughout human history, and there is evidence that civilized human activity such as agriculture and industry has inadvertently modified weather patterns.

There are many plant species on the planet.
An example of the many animal species on the Earth

Evidence suggests that life on Earth has existed for about 3.7 billion years.[28] All known life forms share fundamental molecular mechanisms, and based on these observations, theories on the origin of life attempt to find a mechanism explaining the formation of a primordial single cell organism from which all life originates. There are many different hypotheses regarding the path that might have been taken from simple organic molecules via pre-cellular life to protocells and metabolism.

Although there is no universal agreement on the definition of life, scientists generally accept that the biological manifestation of life is characterized by organization, metabolism, growth, adaptation, response to stimuli and reproduction.[29] Life may also be said to be simply the characteristic state of organisms. In biology, the science of living organisms, "life" is the condition which distinguishes active organisms from inorganic matter, including the capacity for growth, functional activity and the continual change preceding death.[30][31]

A diverse variety of living organisms (life forms) can be found in the biosphere on Earth, and properties common to these organisms—plants, animals, fungi, protists, archaea, and bacteria—are a carbon- and water-based cellular form with complex organization and heritable genetic information. Living organisms undergo metabolism, maintain homeostasis, possess a capacity to grow, respond to stimuli, reproduce and, through natural selection, adapt to their environment in successive generations. More complex living organisms can communicate through various means.

Rainforests often have a great deal of biodiversity with many plant and animal species. This is the Gambia River in Senegal's Niokolo-Koba National Park.

An ecosystem (also called as environment) is a natural unit consisting of all plants, animals and micro-organisms (biotic factors) in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical (abiotic) factors of the environment.[32]

Central to the ecosystem concept is the idea that living organisms are continually engaged in a highly interrelated set of relationships with every other element constituting the environment in which they exist. Eugene Odum, one of the founders of the science of ecology, stated: "Any unit that includes all of the organisms (i.e.: the "community") in a given area interacting with the physical environment so that a flow of energy leads to clearly defined trophic structure, biotic diversity, and material cycles (i.e.: exchange of materials between living and nonliving parts) within the system is an ecosystem."[33]

Old-growth forest and a creek on Larch Mountain, in the U.S. state of Oregon

The human ecosystem concept is then grounded in the deconstruction of the human/nature dichotomy, and the emergent premise that all species are ecologically integrated with each other, as well as with the abiotic constituents of their biotope.

A greater number or variety of species or biological diversity of an ecosystem may contribute to greater resilience of an ecosystem, because there are more species present at a location to respond to change and thus "absorb" or reduce its effects. This reduces the effect before the ecosystem's structure is fundamentally changed to a different state. This is not universally the case and there is no proven relationship between the species diversity of an ecosystem and its ability to provide goods and services on a sustainable level.

The term ecosystem can also pertain to human-made environments, such as human ecosystems and human-influenced ecosystems, and can describe any situation where there is relationship between living organisms and their environment. Fewer areas on the surface of the earth today exist free from human contact, although some genuine wilderness areas continue to exist without any forms of human intervention.

Map of terrestrial biomes classified by vegetation

Biomes are terminologically similar to the concept of ecosystems, and are climatically and geographically defined areas of ecologically similar climatic conditions on the Earth, such as communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. Biomes are defined on the basis of factors such as plant structures (such as trees, shrubs, and grasses), leaf types (such as broadleaf and needleleaf), plant spacing (forest, woodland, savanna), and climate. Unlike ecozones, biomes are not defined by genetic, taxonomic, or historical similarities. Biomes are often identified with particular patterns of ecological succession and climax vegetation.

Chloroplasts conduct photosynthesis and are found in plant cells and other eukaryotic organisms. These are chloroplasts visible in the cells of Plagiomnium affine — many-fruited thyme-moss.

Global biogeochemical cycles are critical to life, most notably those of water, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus.[34]

  • The nitrogen cycle is the transformation of nitrogen and nitrogen-containing compounds in nature. It is a cycle which includes gaseous components.
  • The water cycle, is the continuous movement of water on, above, and below the surface of the Earth. Water can change states among liquid, vapour, and ice at various places in the water cycle. Although the balance of water on Earth remains fairly constant over time, individual water molecules can come and go.
  • The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
  • The oxygen cycle is the movement of oxygen within and between its three main reservoirs: the atmosphere, the biosphere, and the lithosphere. The main driving factor of the oxygen cycle is photosynthesis, which is responsible for the modern Earth's atmospheric composition and life.
  • The phosphorus cycle is the movement of phosphorus through the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. The atmosphere does not play a significant role in the movements of phosphorus, because phosphorus and phosphorus compounds are usually solids at the typical ranges of temperature and pressure found on Earth.

A conifer forest in the Swiss Alps ( National Park)
The Ahklun Mountains and the Togiak Wilderness within the Togiak National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. state of Alaska

Wilderness is generally defined as a natural environment on Earth that has not been significantly modified by human activity. The WILD Foundation goes into more detail, defining wilderness as: "The most intact, undisturbed wild natural areas left on our planet – those last truly wild places that humans do not control and have not developed with roads, pipelines or other industrial infrastructure."[35] Wilderness areas and protected parks are considered important for the survival of certain species, ecological studies, conservation, solitude, and recreation. Wilderness is deeply valued for cultural, spiritual, moral, and aesthetic reasons. Some nature writers believe wilderness areas are vital for the human spirit and creativity.[36]

The word, "wilderness", derives from the notion of wildness; in other words that which is not controllable by humans. The word's etymology is from the Old English wildeornes, which in turn derives from wildeor meaning wild beast (wild + deor = beast, deer).[37] From this point of view, it is the wildness of a place that makes it a wilderness. The mere presence or activity of people does not disqualify an area from being "wilderness." Many ecosystems that are, or have been, inhabited or influenced by activities of people may still be considered "wild." This way of looking at wilderness includes areas within which natural processes operate without very noticeable human interference.

Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants, animals and other organisms. Domesticating wild plant and animal species for human benefit has occurred many times all over the planet, and has a major impact on the environment, both positive and negative. Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems. Deserts, rain forests, plains, and other areas—including the most developed urban sites—all have distinct forms of wildlife. While the term in popular culture usually refers to animals that are untouched by civilized human factors, most scientists agree that wildlife around the world is (now) impacted by human activities.

A view of wilderness in Estonia

Before flue-gas desulfurization was installed, the air-polluting emissions from this power plant in New Mexico contained excessive amounts of sulfur dioxide.
Amazon rainforest in Brazil. The tropical rainforests of South America contain the largest diversity of species on Earth, including some that have evolved within the past few hundred thousand years. [38][39]

It is the common understanding of natural environment that underlies environmentalism — a broad political, social, and philosophical movement that advocates various actions and policies in the interest of protecting what nature remains in the natural environment, or restoring or expanding the role of nature in this environment. While true wilderness is increasingly rare, wild nature (e.g., unmanaged forests, uncultivated grasslands, wildlife, wildflowers) can be found in many locations previously inhabited by humans.

Goals for the benefit of people and natural systems, commonly expressed by environmental scientists and environmentalists include:

  • Elimination of pollution and toxicants in air, water, soil, buildings, manufactured goods, and food.
  • Preservation of biodiversity and protection of endangered species.
  • Conservation and sustainable use of resources such as water,[40] land, air, energy, raw materials, and natural resources.
  • Halting human-induced global warming, which represents pollution, a threat to biodiversity, and a threat to human populations.
  • Shifting from fossil fuels to renewable energy in electricity, heating and cooling, and transportation, which addresses pollution, global warming, and sustainability. This may include public transportation and distributed generation, which have benefits for traffic congestion and electric reliability.
  • Shifting from meat-intensive diets to largely plant-based diets in order to help mitigate biodiversity loss and climate change.[41]
  • Establishment of nature reserves for recreational purposes and ecosystem preservation.
  • Sustainable and less polluting waste management including waste reduction (or even zero waste), reuse, recycling, composting, waste-to-energy, and anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge.
  • Reducing profligate consumption and clamping down on illegal fishing and logging.[42]
  • Slowing and stabilisation of human population growth.[43]

In some cultures the term environment is meaningless because there is no separation between people and what they view as the natural world, or their surroundings.[44] Specifically in the United States and Arabian countries many native cultures do not recognize the "environment", or see themselves as environmentalists.[45]

  • Conservation movement
  • Gaia hypothesis
  • Index of environmental articles
  • List of environmental issues
  • List of environmental websites
  • Natural capital
  • Natural history
  • Natural landscape
  • Sustainability
  • Sustainable agriculture
  • Timeline of environmental history

  1. ^ Johnson, D. L.; Ambrose, S. H.; Bassett, T. J.; Bowen, M. L.; Crummey, D. E.; Isaacson, J. S.; Johnson, D. N.; Lamb, P.; Saul, M.; Winter-Nelson, A. E. (1997). "Meanings of Environmental Terms". Journal of Environmental Quality. 26 (3): 581–589. doi:10.2134/jeq1997.00472425002600030002x.
  2. ^ Symons, Donald (1979). The Evolution of Human Sexuality. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 31. ISBN 0-19-502535-0.
  3. ^ Earth's Spheres Archived 2007-08-31 at the Wayback Machine. Wheeling Jesuit University/NASA Classroom of the Future. Retrieved November 11, 2007.
  4. ^ "Wordnet Search: Earth science". Archived from the original on 2020-04-10. Retrieved 2008-08-22.
  5. ^ " "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-07-14. Retrieved 2012-07-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)". The Columbia Encyclopedia. 2002. New York: Columbia University Press
  6. ^ "Distribution of land and water on the planet Archived May 31, 2008, at the Wayback Machine". UN Atlas of the Oceans Archived September 15, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ River {definition} from Merriam-Webster. Accessed February 2010.
  8. ^ http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/hydrology.html/ |date=June 20, 2019
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