テネシー州メンフィス

Hashtags #テネシー州メンフィス

テネシー州メンフィス歴史et地理

メンフィスは、アメリカ合衆国テネシー州シェルビー郡南西部のミシシッピ川沿いの都市です。その2019年の推定人口は651073であった[3]それテネシー州の作る2番目に人口の多い都市の背後にあるナッシュビル、国家の第28位の規模、および適切なミシシッピ川沿いに位置する最大の都市。グレーターメンフィスである第42回、最大の都市圏2017で1348260の人口と、米国では、[6]は、市内でのアンカーである西テネシー州と大きいミッド南地域の近隣の部分を含み、アーカンソーミシシッピミズーリ ブートヒール。メンフィスは、テネシー州で最も人口の多いシェルビー郡の所在地です。米国南部で最も歴史的かつ文化的に重要な都市の 1 つであるメンフィスには、多種多様な景観と独特の地域があります。

現在のメンフィスの地域を訪れた最初のヨーロッパ人探検家は、1541 年にスペインのコンキスタドールエルナンド デ ソトが新世界への遠征を行いました。ミシシッピ川からその場所を守っている高いチカソー ブラフは、メンフィスが形成されると、スペイン、フランス、イギリスによって争われました。現代のメンフィスは、ジョン・オーバートン、ジェームズ・ウィンチェスター、そして将来の大統領アンドリュー・ジャクソンの3人の著名なアメリカ人によって1819年に設立されました。[7]

メンフィスは、農産物、木材などの天然資源、アメリカの奴隷貿易の市場として、南半球最大の都市の 1 つに成長しました。南北戦争と奴隷制度の終焉の後、この都市は綿花[8]と木材の最大の世界市場の 1 つになったため、20 世紀に入ってさらに急速な成長を遂げました。

テネシー州最大手のホームアフリカ系アメリカ人の人口は、メンフィスで重要な役割を果たしたアメリカの公民権運動の現場だったマーティン・ルーサー・キング・ジュニアの1968暗殺。市は現在、ホスト国立公民権博物館-aスミソニアンアフィリエイト機関。公民権の時代以来、メンフィスは輸送と物流における国内有数の商業の中心地の 1 つになりました。[9]最大の雇用主は多国籍宅配会社のフェデックスであり、メンフィス国際空港に世界的な航空ハブを置いており、世界で 2 番目に忙しい貨物空港となっています。グローバル航空貨物のリーダーであることに加えて、メンフィスの国際港はまた、ミシシッピ川へのアクセス権を持つ、米国で第五忙しい内陸水ポートをホストしている[10]の出荷が電車に変換するため、世界中から到着することができますし、メンフィスは、内陸に位置しているにもかかわらず、米国内の輸送をトラックで行っており、輸入および輸出用の商品を取引するためのマルチモーダルなハブになっています。

メンフィスは、商業、教育、メディア、アート、エンターテインメントの地域の中心地です。それは長い目立ってきた音楽シーンを、[11]歴史的にブルースのクラブビールストリートは、ユニークな元のメンフィスブルース早い20世紀のサウンドを。この街の音楽は、ブルース、カントリー、ロックンロール、ソウル、ヒップホップなど、多文化の影響が混ざり合って形成され続けています。メンフィス スタイルのバーベキューは国際的に有名です。この街では、毎年 100,000 人以上の観光客が訪れる世界選手権バーベキュー料理コンテストが開催されています。

初期の歴史

ミシシッピ川から隆起するかなりの断崖を占めるメンフィスの場所は、何千年にもわたってさまざまな文化によって人間が定住するための自然な場所でした。[12]この地域は、ミシシッピ川流域とその支流全体にコミュニティのネットワークを持っていたミシシッピ文化の人々によって最初の千年紀に定住した. 彼らは、洗練された文化の表現として、大規模な土工儀式と古墳を備えた複合施設を建設しました。[13]彼らの子孫であると考えられている歴史的なチカソー族 インディアン部族は、後にその場所に住んだ. [14]

16世紀、ルネ=ロベール・カブリエ、シユール・ド・ラ・サール[15]とスペイン人探検家エルナンド・デ・ソト[16] [17]が率いるフランスの探検家がチカソーに遭遇した。

ハドソンさんの書き込みJDLホームズ、南インド人のうち4つの世紀(2007年)、このサイトはヨーロッパ列強は、米国の侵略とインドの事項-後との干渉を制御することが可能で、それを通して後半18世紀における第三要衝だったことをノートフォートノガレス(存在します日ビックスバーグ) およびフォート・コンフェデラシオン(現在のアラバマ州エプス): 「チカソー・ブラフスは、現在のメンフィスの位置にあるミシシッピ川沿いにあります。スペインとアメリカはこの場所の支配権をめぐって争っていました。チカソー」。[18] : 71

1795年のスペイン総督ルイジアナ州、フランシスコ・ルイス・ヘクター・デ・カロンデレットは、彼の副知事、送られたマニュエル・ガヨーソ・デ・レモスをスペインの砦は絶壁の上に建てすることができるように、ローカルチカソーから同意を交渉して確保するために、。その結果がサン フェルナンド デ ラス バランカス砦です。[18] : 71 [19]ホームズは、「失望したアメリカ人とチカソーの親米派」からの反対にもかかわらず、「親スペイン派がチカソー・ブラフス割譲に署名し、スペインがチカソーに取引を提供したとき、同意に達した」と述べている.役職"。[18] : 71

ホームズが要約するように、フォート サン フェルナンド デ ラス バランカスはスペインの活動の中心であり続けました。

[T]サン・ロレンツォ条約または1795年のピンクニー条約[1797年3月に履行された][その結果]ルイジアナと西フロリダのスペイン当局による慎重で外交的な仕事のすべて、インディアン [例えば、チョクトー族] の支配は取り消された。米国はミシシッピ川を航行する権利を獲得し、31 平行線の北にあるヤズー・ストリップの支配権を獲得した。[18] : 75,71

スペイン人は砦を解体し、その材木と鉄をアーカンソー州の彼らの場所に輸送しました。[20]

1796 年に、この場所は、当時米国南西部と呼ばれていたテネシー州の新たに承認された州の最西端になりました。この地域は、依然としてチカソー族の支配下に置かれていました。キャプテン アイザック ギオンは、1797 年 7 月 20 日にアメリカ軍を率いてオハイオ川を下って土地を主張し、到着しました。この時までに、スペイン人は出発していました。[21] 20 年後、アメリカ合衆国政府がチカソーに土地の代金を支払った後、メンフィスが都市として計画されたとき、砦の遺跡は気づかれなかった. [22]

19世紀

1850年代半ばのメンフィス

メンフィス市は、1819 年 5 月 22 日 (1826 年 12 月 19 日に法人化) に、ジョン オーバートン、ジェームズ ウィンチェスター、アンドリュー ジャクソンによって設立されました。[23] [24]彼らは、ナイル川沿いの古代エジプトの首都にちなんで名付けました。[25]

1850 年代から 1860 年代にかけて、移民と国内移住の波の下で、市の人口動態は劇的に変化しました。1840年代以降増加と移民に大飢饉、民族アイルランドは1850年に人口の9.9%を占めていたが、総人口は22623だった1860年、で23.2%。[26] [27] [28]

1864 年のフォレスト将軍による アーヴィング ブロックへの攻撃

テネシー州は1861 年 6 月に北軍から離脱し、メンフィスは一時的に南軍の拠点となった。1862 年 6 月 6 日のメンフィス海戦で北軍の 装甲艦に捕獲され、市と州は戦争の間、北軍に占領されました。北軍の指揮官は、この期間のほとんどの間、市が市民政府を維持することを許可したが、南軍の退役軍人を職から除外した.これにより、戦争が続くにつれて市の政治力学が変化した. [29]

戦争の年は、都市人口のさらなる劇的な変化に貢献しました。北軍の存在は、周辺の田舎のプランテーションから逃げた多くの逃亡奴隷を引き付けた. 非常に多くの人が北軍の前線の背後で保護を求めたため、陸軍は彼らを収容するために密輸キャンプを設置しました。メンフィスの黒人人口は、総人口が 22,623 人だった 1860 年の 3,000 人から、1865 年には約 20,000 人に増加し、そのほとんどが市域の南に定住しました。[30]

戦後、復興と民主的支配

急速な人口動態の変化は、戦争と占領のストレスと、誰が担当したかについての不確実性を増し、戦後のアイルランドの警官と黒人の北軍兵士との間の緊張を高めた. [29] 1866年5月初旬の3日間の暴動で、メンフィス暴動が勃発し、警官、消防士、その他ほとんどがアイルランド系アメリカ人で構成された白人の暴動が46人の黒人を攻撃して殺害し、75人が負傷し、100人が負傷した。複数の女性をレイプしました。100 軒近くの家を破壊し、サウス メンフィスの教会や学校に深刻な被害をもたらしました。黒人居住地の多くは廃墟のままでした。この暴動で 2 人の白人が死亡した。[30]その後、多くの黒人がメンフィスから永久に逃亡し、特に自由人局が彼らを保護するのに苦労し続けた. 彼らの人口は 1870 年までに約 15,000 人に減少し[29]、総人口 40,226 人の 37.4% に達した[29]

1870 年、メンフィスの歴史的な航空写真

歴史家のバーリントン・ウォーカーは、アイルランド人が黒人に対して暴動を起こしたのは、黒人が移民として到着したのが比較的最近で、黒人が「白人」であるという主張が不確かだったことを示唆している。彼らは下層階級の黒人から離れようとしていた. 主な戦闘参加者は、アイルランド人、退役した北軍の黒人兵士、解放されたばかりのアフリカ系アメリカ人でした。ウォーカーは、暴徒のほとんどは黒人との直接的な経済的紛争にはなっておらず、アイルランド人はより良い仕事を獲得していたが、解放奴隷に対する支配を確立していた. [28]

メンフィスでは、他のいくつかの都市での騒動とは異なり、元南軍の退役軍人は一般的に黒人に対する攻撃に参加していませんでした。メンフィスでの暴動とニューオーリンズでの 9 月の同様の暴動 (後者には南軍の退役軍人が含まれていた) の暴動により、議会は再建法と合衆国憲法修正第 14 条を可決した。[30]

イエロージャック

1870 年代、一連の黄熱病の 流行がメンフィスを荒廃させ、この病気は川の乗客によって水路に運ばれました。1878 年の黄熱病の流行の間、7 月 26 日から 11 月 27 日までの間に 5,000 人以上が公式の死亡者名簿に記載されました。アメリカの都市史において。メンフィス保健局が黄熱の流行を宣言してから 4 日以内に、20,000 人の住民が市から逃げました。その後のパニックにより、貧困に苦しむ人々、労働者階級、そしてアフリカ系アメリカ人コミュニティは、流行による最大のリスクにさらされました。残った人々は、病気の世話をするために宗教団体や医師団体からのボランティアに頼っていました。年末までに、メンフィスで 5,000 人以上の死亡が確認されました。ニューオーリンズの保健委員会は、「4,600人以上」の死者を挙げた. ミシシッピ渓谷では、120,000 件の黄熱病の症例が記録され、20,000 人が死亡しました。流行病によって引き起こされた 1,500 万ドルの損失によりメンフィスは破産し、その結果、その憲章は州議会によって取り消されました。

メンフィスのウォーターフロントを表す木版画、c。1879年

1870 年までに、メンフィスの人口は 40,000 人で、ナッシュビルとアトランタのほぼ 2 倍になり、ニューオーリンズに次いで南部で 2 番目に大きな都市になりました。[31] 1873年のパニックが特に南部でアメリカを襲ったときでさえ、その人口は1870年以降も増え続けた. 1873 年のパニックにより、メンフィスの下層階級が拡大し、メンフィスがもたらした貧困と苦難の中で、荒れ果てた変化のない都市としてのメンフィスの信頼性がさらに高まりました。1878 年のアウトブレイクに至るまで、2 度の黄熱病の流行、コレラ、マラリアに見舞われ、病弱で汚いと評判になりました。メンフィスと同じくらい人口の多い都市で上水道がないというのは前代未聞のことでした。市は依然として供給を完全に川と雨水タンクから集めることに依存しており、下水を除去する方法がありませんでした。[31]特に下層階級と労働者階級の人口の増加と、劣悪な健康状態と衛生状態が組み合わさったことで、メンフィスは深刻な流行病への準備ができていた[31]

イタリアの「スナックハウス」のオーナーであるケイト・ビオンダは、8月13日に発熱で死亡した[31] 8月14日に、彼女は市内で最初の黄熱病の症例として保健局から公式に報告された[31][31]大パニックが続いた。5 日間で数千人をメンフィスに運んだのと同じ列車と蒸気船が、人口の半分以上にあたる 25,000 人以上のメンフィス人を運び去りました。[31] 8 月 23 日、保健委員会はついにメンフィスでの黄熱の流行を宣言し、市は崩壊し、人口が流出しました。その年の 7 月には、市の人口は 47,000 人でした。9 月までに 19,000 人が残り、そのうち 17,000 人が黄熱病にかかっていました。[31]街に残ったのはドイツ人やアイルランド人移民労働者、アフリカ系アメリカ人などの下層階級だけだった[31]。メンフィスの中流階級と上流階級の白人がそうであったように、誰も都市から逃げる手段を持っていなかったので、彼らは死の都市にさらされました。

保健委員会の宣言の直後に、Citizen's Relief Committee が Charles G. Fisher によって設立されました。それは都市を難民キャンプに組織化した. 委員会の主な優先事項は、貧しい人々を都市から引き離し、難民キャンプに隔離することでした。[31]ニューオーリンズとメンフィスでの黄熱病の流行のために特別に結成されたハワード・アソシエーションは、メンフィスと全国の看護師と医師を組織した. [32]彼らは、流行の間、ドアを開けっぱなしにした唯一のホテルであるピーボディ・ホテルに泊まりました。そこから、彼らはそれぞれの地区に配属されました。流行の医師は、毎日 100 から 150 人の患者を診ていると報告した。[31]

セント メアリー病院の姉妹は、下層階級の世話をするという流行の間、重要な役割を果たしました。すでに女子校と教会の孤児院を支援していたセント メアリーズの姉妹たちは、黒人の子供たちのホームであるキャンフィールド アサイラムのケアも提供しようとしました。毎日、彼らはセント メアリーズで孤児の世話をし、子供たちをキャンフィールド アサイラムに送り、患者への電話でスープと薬を飲んでいました。[31] 9 月 9 日から 10 月 4 日の間に、コンスタンス姉妹と他の 3 人の修道女が流行の犠牲になり、死亡しました。彼らは後にメンフィスの殉教者として知られるようになりました。[33]

ついに、10 月 28 日、致命的な霜が降りました。市は全国に散らばるメンフィア人に家に帰るよう命じた. 黄熱病の症例は、1874 年 2 月 29 日までエルムウッド墓地の埋葬記録のページに記録されていましたが、流行は沈静化したように見えました。[31]保健委員会は、流行が終息すると宣言し、20,000 人以上が死亡し、2 億ドル近くの経済的損失を引き起こしました。[34] 11月27日、一般市民の会合がグリーンロー・オペラハウスで召集され、奉仕のために残った人々に感謝を述べた. 翌年にかけて、固定資産税収入は崩壊し、市は市の借金を返済できなくなった。その結果、メンフィスは一時的にその都市憲章を失い、1878年から1893年まで課税地区として、州議会で再分類された[32] 。しかし衛生の新しい時代は、市内で開発された、1879年の新しい自治体が形成助けました最初の地域保健組織であり、1880 年代にメンフィスは衛生改革と改善において国をリードしました。[34]

おそらくメンフィスに対する黄熱病の最も重要な影響は、人口動態の変化でした。メンフィスの上流階級と中流階級のほぼすべてが姿を消し、ニューオーリンズ、チャールストン、アトランタなどの他の大きな南部の都市と同様に、日常生活を支配していた一般的なリーダーシップと階級構造が市から奪われました。メンフィスでは、貧しい白人と黒人が基本的に都市を構成し、その再建において最大の役割を果たしました。流行の結果、メンフィスは国際的でない場所になり、綿の貿易に役立つ経済と、貧しい白人および黒人の南部人から人口が増加していった. [35]

19世紀後半

1890 年の選挙は激しく争われ、DP ハデン派の反対派が黒人の選挙権を剥奪して票を剥奪しようとする結果となった。州は、人頭税の要件を含むいくつかの法律を制定し、多くの黒人の選挙権を剥奪しました。将来の政党派閥は、黒人が投票できるようにするために人頭税を支払うこともありましたが、アフリカ系アメリカ人はこの選挙で市議会での最後の地位を失い、警察から追放されました。(彼らは、1960 年代半ばに公民権法が可決されるまで、フランチャイズを行使する能力を回復しませんでした。) 歴史家の LB レンは、民主党の選挙戦の政治的敵意の高まりとそれに関連する社会的緊張が、白人の暴徒が3 人の黒人食料品店をリンチしたことを示唆しています。1892 年にメンフィスで。[36] : 124,131

殺された男性の 1 人は彼女の友人だったので、メンフィスのジャーナリストIda B. Wellsはリンチを調査しました。彼女は、これらのリンチやその他のリンチが、黒人男性による犯罪よりも、経済的および社会的競争が原因であることが多いことを示しました。彼女の発見は非常に物議を醸すと考えられ、非常に怒りを引き起こしたため、彼女は都市から離れることを余儀なくされました。しかし、彼女はリンチの虐待を調査し、公表し続けました。[36] : 131

1878 年から 1879 年の損失の後、実業家は都市人口を増やすことに熱心であり、都市への新しい地域の併合を支持した。これは、国勢調査の前に 1890 年に可決されました。併合措置は、不動産大手との妥協により最終的に州議会によって承認され、併合された地域は最初の提案よりもわずかに小さかった。[36] : 126

1893年に市がでrecharteredたホームルール制定税にその能力を回復し、。州議会はキャップレートを設定した。[37]委員会政府は維持され、5人の委員に拡大されたが、民主党の政治家はビジネスエリートから支配を取り戻した. 委員会形式の政府は物事を成し遂げるのに効果的であると考えられていたが、すべての役職は全体として選出され、過半数の票を獲得する必要があったため、この慣行は重要な少数派の政治的利益を代表する候補者の代表を減らした. [36] : 126f

20世紀から現在まで

ユニオンアベニューの綿花商(1937年)

経済の面では、メンフィスは世界最大のスポット綿市場と世界最大の広葉樹製材市場として発展し、どちらもミシシッピ デルタの商品である。1950 年代には、世界最大のラバ市場でした。[38] 1900年から1950年にかけて、都市の人口は102,350人から396,000人に、ほぼ4倍に増加した. [39]

人種差別的暴力は衰えることなく続いた。ジョン・R・スティールマンによると、1900年から1928年に「南部の暴徒行動」に関する博士論文を執筆するまでの間に4回のリンチがあった.彼が最後に記録したのは、トーマス・ウィリアムズのリンチだった. [40]

1910 年代から 1950 年代にかけて、メンフィスはEH "ボス" クランプの指揮の下、機械政治の場でした。彼は 1911 年に州法を制定し、市を管理する小さな委員会を設立しました。市は1967年まで委員会の形態を維持し、クランプの下で後援が栄えた. LB Wrennのこの時期の研究についての出版社の要約によると、「この小さな委員会への政治権力の集中化は、地方自治体のビジネスの効率的な取引を助けたが、その結果として生じた公共政策は、上流階級のメンフィア人に利益をもたらす傾向があり、裕福でない人々を無視した。住民や近所。」[36] [必要なページ] [41]市は革命的な下水道システムを設置し、衛生状態と排水を改善して、別の流行を防ぎました。1880 年代に、職人の井戸からの純水が発見され、市の水の供給が確保されました。コミッショナーは、都市美運動の一環として、公園や公共事業の広範なネットワークを開発しましたが、労働者階級の人口に実質的な雇用を提供した可能性のある重工業を奨励しませんでした。市政府に代表者がいないため、貧困層やマイノリティーの代表が過小評価されていた。過半数は、すべての大きなポジションの選出を制御しました。[36] [ページが必要です]

メンフィスは1963 年まで自治都市にはならなかったが、州議会は 1953 年に州憲法を改正し、市や郡に自治を与えるようになった。その前に、市はその憲章を変更したり、他の政策やプログラムのために州の法案を承認する必要がありました。1963年以来、有権者の一般的な承認により憲章を変更することができます。[36] : 194

1960 年代、この都市は公民権運動の中心でした。その大多数のアフリカ系アメリカ人は、20 世紀初頭の州の人種隔離慣行と権利剥奪の影響を受けていました。アフリカ系アメリカ人の住民は、生活を改善するために公民権運動を利用しました。1968 年、生活賃金と労働条件の改善のためにメンフィスの衛生ストライキが始まりました。労働者は圧倒的にアフリカ系アメリカ人でした。彼らは、仕事の危険性や、低賃金で家族を養うための苦闘など、彼らの窮状に対する一般の認識と支持を得るために行進しました。より良い賃金を求める彼らの意欲は、市政府からの抵抗に遭いました。

非暴力運動でのリーダーシップで知られる南部キリスト教指導者会議のマーティン・ルーサー・キング・ジュニアは、労働者の大義を支援するためにやって来ました。キングは市内のロレイン・モーテルに滞在し、メイソン・テンプルで「I've Been to the Mountaintop」のスピーチをした翌日の1968年4月4日にジェームズ・アール・レイによって暗殺された.

キングの殺害を知った後、市内の多くのアフリカ系アメリカ人が暴動を起こし、企業やその他の施設を略奪し、放火によって破壊した. 知事はテネシー州兵に数時間以内にテネシー州兵に市内に侵入するよう命じた. [42]暴力を恐れて、都市を離れて郊外に向かう中産階級が増えた。

1970 年、国勢調査局はメンフィスの人口を 60.8% の白人、38.9% の黒人と報告しました。[43]郊外化により、裕福な住民が市外の新しい住宅に惹きつけられた[43]。公立学校の人種差別撤廃を達成するために1973年に暴動と裁判所の命令を受けた後、「システムの71,000人の白人学生のうち約40,000人が4年間でシステムを放棄した」. [44]今日、この都市にはアフリカ系アメリカ人の人口が多い。

メンフィスは、アメリカ南部のアイデンティティへの文化的貢献でよく知られています。多くの有名なミュージシャンがメンフィスとその周辺で育ち、シカゴやミシシッピ デルタから他の地域に移り、ラジオ放送で他の都市やリスナーに影響を与えるために彼らの音楽を運びました。[45] [完全な引用が必要]

メンフィスの以前および現在の居住者には、ミュージシャンのエルヴィス・プレスリー、ジェリー・リー・ルイス、マディ・ウォーターズ、カール・パーキンス、ジョニー・キャッシュ、ロバート・ジョンソン、WC ハンディ、BB キング、ハウリン・ウルフ、アイザック・ヘイズ、ブッカー・T・ジョーンズ、エリック・ゲイルズ、アル・グリーン、アレックス チルトン、ジャスティン ティンバーレイク、スリー 6 マフィア、シルヴァーズ、ジェイ リアタード、ザック マイヤーズ、アレサ フランクリン。

1988 年 12 月 23 日、液体プロパンを運ぶタンクローリーがミッドタウンの I-40/I-240 インターチェンジで墜落し、爆発し、複数の車両と構造物火災が発生しました。9 人が死亡し、10 人が負傷した。これはテネシー州で最も致命的な自動車事故の 1 つであり、最終的には事故が発生したインターチェンジの再建につながりました。[46] [47]

2021 年 6 月 2 日、南軍の将軍とクー・クラックス・クランのリーダー、ネイサン・ベッドフォード・フォレストの遺体がメンフィスの公園から撤去されました。[48]

よると、米国国勢調査局、市が324.0平方マイル(839.2キロの総面積を持っている2)、315.1平方マイル(816.0キロそのうち2)土地と9.0平方マイル(23.2キロである2)、または2.76パーセント、水です。[49]

街並み

南西に面し たピラミッドの展望台からの ダウンタウンのスカイライン
原ハン橋からの ダウンタウン

メンフィスのダウンタウンは、ミシシッピ川沿いの断崖からそびえ立っています。都市と大都市圏は郊外化によって広がり、テネシー州南西部、ミシシッピ州北部、アーカンソー州東部に広がっています。いくつかの大規模な公園は、特に、初期の20世紀に市に設立されたオーバートンパークでのミッドタウンと4,500エーカー(18キロ2)シェルビー農場。この都市は国土交通の中心地であり、州間高速道路 40 号線(東西)、州間高速道路 55 号線(南北)、バージ交通、メンフィス国際空港 (フェデックスの「スーパーハブ」施設)、および都市にサービスを提供する多数の貨物鉄道のミシシッピ川横断です。.

リバーフロント

アメリカの女王は、河岸に沿ってビールストリートランディングにドッキング

メンフィス リバーフロントは、北のミーマン シェルビー フォレスト州立公園から南のTO フラー州立公園まで、ミシシッピ川に沿って伸びています。リバー ウォークは、メンフィスのダウンタウンを北のミシシッピ リバー グリーンベルト パークから南のトム リー パークまで結ぶ公園システムです。

併合解除

近年、市はその領土の一部を併合することを決定しました。市域内の 5 つの地域を併合解除する 3 段階のプロセスを経て、未編入のシェルビー郡の一部に戻ります。[50]併合解除の最初の段階は2020年1月1日に起こり、市のイーズとリバーボトムズ地域が郡の管轄に戻った. その結果、シェルビー郡保安官はメンフィスのこれらの旧地域をパトロールする責任があります。[51]併合プロセスのこの第 1 段階では、都市のサイズが 5% 減少し、人口が 0.03% 減少すると推定されています。[50]次の 2 つのフェーズは、はるかに重要な影響を及ぼします。

帯水層

シェルビー郡には 4 つの天然帯水層があり、そのうちの 1 つは「メンフィス砂帯水層」または単に「メンフィス帯水層」として認識されています。地下 350 ~ 1,100 フィート (110 ~ 340 m) に位置するこの自噴水源は軟水と見なされ、メンフィス ライト、ガス、ウォーターによると、100 兆 US ガロン (380 km 3 ) を超える水が含まれていると推定されています。[52]

気候

メンフィスは、湿度の高い亜熱帯気候(ケッペン Cfa、トレワーサ Cf ) にあり、四季がはっきりし、ダウンタウンのUSDA プラント耐寒性ゾーン8a に位置し、周辺地域の多くで 7b に冷却されます。[53]冬の天候は、上から交互に来てグレートプレーンズとメキシコ湾温度の急激なスイングにつながることができ、。夏の天気は、テキサス(非常に高温多湿) または湾岸 (高温多湿)から来る場合があります。7 月の日平均気温は 82.7 °F (28.2 °C) で、メキシコ湾からの湿気の侵入により湿度が高くなります。夏の間、午後と夕方の雷雨が頻繁に発生しますが、通常は短時間で、持続時間は 1 時間以内です。初秋は快適に乾燥して温暖ですが、10 月下旬まで暑くなることがあります。晩秋は雨が多く、涼しくなります。降水量は 11 月と 12 月に再びピークに達します。冬は温暖から肌寒く、1 月の日平均気温は 41.2 °F (5.1 °C) です。雪は冬に散発的に発生し、季節平均降雪量は 3.9 インチ (9.9 cm) です。アイス ストームと凍るような雨は、しばしば電力線で木の枝を引っ張り、運転を危険にさらすため、より大きな危険をもたらします。激しい雷雨は、主に春の間ですが、一年中いつでも発生する可能性があります。大粒の ha ha ha、強風、洪水、頻繁な雷がこれらの嵐を伴うことがあります。一部の嵐は竜巻を発生させます。

メンフィスでこれまでに記録された最低気温は、1963 年 12 月 24 日に -25 °C (-13 °F) で[54] [55]、これまでの最高気温は 1980 年 7 月 13 日の 108 °F (42 °C) でした。[56] 1 年を通して、平均で 4.4 日間の最高気温が氷点下以下、6.9 日間の最低気温が 20 °F (-7 °C) 未満、43 日間の最低気温が氷点下、64 日間の最高気温が 90 度を超えます。 °F (32 °C)+、および 2.1 日間の最高気温 100 °F (38 °C)+ 以上。

年間降水量は多く (53.68 インチ (1,360 mm))、年間を通じて比較的均等に分布しています。月平均降水量は 3 月から 5 月、11 月、12 月が特に高く、8 月と 9 月は乾燥しています。

For historical population data, see: History of Memphis, Tennessee. According to the 2006–2008 American Community Survey, the racial composition of the city of Memphis was:

  • Black or African American: 62.6%
  • White: 31.7% (Non-Hispanic Whites: 29.5%)
  • Hispanic or Latino (of any race): 5.0%
  • Asian: 1.7%
  • Native American: 0.2%
  • Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 0.1%
  • Some other race: 2.7%
  • Two or more races: 1.2%
Map of racial distribution in Memphis, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, AsianHispanic, or Other (yellow)

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 652,078 people and 245,836 households in the city.[69] The population density was 2,327.4 people per sq mi (898.6/km2). There were 271,552 housing units at an average density of 972.2 per sq mi (375.4/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 63.33% African American, 29.39% White, 1.46% Asian American, 1.57% Native American, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.45% from other races, and 1.04% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.49% of the population.

The median income for a household in the city was $32,285, and the median income for a family was $37,767. Males had a median income of $31,236 versus $25,183 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,838. About 17.2% of families and 20.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.1% of those under age 18, and 15.4% of those age 65 or over. In 2011, the U.S. Census Bureau ranked the Memphis area as the poorest large metro area in the country.[70] Dr. Jeff Wallace of the University of Memphis noted that the problem was related to decades of segregation in government and schools. He said that it was a low-cost job market, but other places in the world could offer cheaper labor, and the workforce was undereducated for today's challenges.[70]

The Memphis Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), the 42nd largest in the United States, has a 2010 population of 1,316,100 and includes the Tennessee counties of Shelby, Tipton and Fayette; as well as the northern Mississippi counties of DeSoto, Marshall, Tate, and Tunica; and Crittenden County, Arkansas, all part of the Mississippi Delta.

The total metropolitan area has a higher proportion of whites and a higher per capita income than the population in the city. The 2010 census shows that the Memphis metro area is close to a majority-minority population:

the white population is 47.9 percent of the eight-county area's 1,316,100 residents. The non-Hispanic white population, a designation frequently used in census reports, was 46.2 percent of the total. The African American percentage was 45.7. For several decades, the Memphis metro area has had the highest percentage of black population among the nation's large metropolitan areas. The area has seemed on a path to become the nation's first metro area of one million or more with a majority black population.[71]

In a reverse trend of the Great Migration, numerous African Americans and other minorities have moved into DeSoto County, and blacks have followed suburban trends, moving into the suburbs of Shelby County.[71]

Religion

Asian-American tombstones in Elmwood Cemetery

An 1870 map of Memphis shows religious buildings of the Baptist, Catholic, Episcopal, Methodist, Presbyterian, Congregational, and other Christian denominations, and a Jewish congregation.[72] In 2009, places of worship exist for Christians, Jews, Hindus, Buddhists, and Muslims.

The international headquarters of the Church of God in Christ, the largest Pentecostal denomination in the United States, is located in Memphis. Its Mason Temple was named after the denomination's founder, Charles Harrison Mason. This auditorium is where Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. gave his noted "I've Been to the Mountaintop" speech in April 1968, the night before he was assassinated at his motel. The National Civil Rights Museum, located in Memphis at the Lorraine Motel and other buildings, has an annual ceremony at Mason's Temple of Deliverance where it honors persons with Freedom Awards.

Bellevue Baptist Church is a Southern Baptist megachurch in Memphis that was founded in 1903. Its current membership is around 30,000.[73] For many years, it was led by Adrian Rogers, a three-term president of the Southern Baptist Convention.

Other notable and/or large churches in Memphis include Second Presbyterian Church (EPC), Highpoint Church[74] (SBC), Hope Presbyterian Church (EPC), Evergreen Presbyterian Church (PCUSA), Colonial Park United Methodist Church, Christ United Methodist Church, Idlewild Presbyterian Church (PCUSA), GraceLife Pentecostal Church (UPCI), First Baptist Broad, Temple of Deliverance, Calvary Episcopal Church, the Church of the River (First Unitarian Church of Memphis), First Congregational Church (UCC) and Annunciation Greek Orthodox Church.

Memphis is home to two cathedrals. The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Memphis, and St. Mary's Episcopal Cathedral is the seat of the Episcopal Diocese of West Tennessee.

Memphis is home to Temple Israel, a Reform synagogue that has approximately 7,000 members, making it one of the largest Reform synagogues in the country. Baron Hirsch Synagogue is the largest Orthodox shul in the United States.[75] Jewish residents were part of the city before the Civil War, but more Jewish immigrants came from Eastern Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Memphis is home to an estimated 10,000 to 15,000 Muslims of various cultures and ethnicities.[76]

A number of seminaries are located in Memphis and the metropolitan area. Memphis is home to Memphis Theological Seminary and Harding School of Theology. Suburban Cordova is home to Mid-America Baptist Theological Seminary.

Crime

A Memphis Police Department vehicle

In the 21st century, Memphis has struggled to reduce crime. In 2007, it ranked as the second-most dangerous city by the Morgan Quitno rankings.[77] In 2004, violent crime in Memphis reached a decade record low. However, that trend changed and in 2005, Memphis was ranked the fourth-most dangerous city with a population of 500,000 or higher in the U.S.[78] Crime increased again in the first half of 2006. By 2014, Memphis crime had substantially decreased, bringing the city's ranking up to eleventh in violent crime.[79] Nationally, cities follow similar trends, and crime numbers tend to be cyclical. Nationally, other moderate-sized cities were also suffering large rises in crime, although crime in the largest cities continued to decrease or increased much less.[80][81][better source needed]

In the first half of 2006, robbery of businesses increased 52.5%, robbery of individuals increased 28.5%, and homicides increased 18% over the same period of 2005. The Memphis Police Department responded with the initiation of Operation Blue C.R.U.S.H. (Crime Reduction Using Statistical History), which targets crime hotspots and repeat offenders.[82]

Memphis ended 2005 with 154 murders, and 2006 ended with 160; in 2007 there were 164 murders, 2008 had 138, and 2009 had 132. Violent crimes dropped from 12,939 in 2008 to 12,047. Robbery dropped from 4,788 in 2008 to 4,137 in 2009. Aggravated assault dropped 53,870 in 2008 to 47,158 in 2009 (FBI's UCR). In 2006 and 2007, the Memphis metropolitan area ranked second-most dangerous in the nation among cities with a population over 500,000. In 2006, the Memphis metropolitan area ranked number one in violent crimes for major cities around the U.S., according to the FBI's annual crime rankings, whereas it had ranked second in 2005.[83]

Since 2006, serious crime has dropped in Memphis. Between 2006 and 2008, the crime rate fell by 16%, while the first half of 2009 saw a reduction in serious crime of more than 10% from the previous year. The Memphis Police Department's use of the FBI National Incident-Based Reporting System, which is a more detailed method of reporting crimes than what is used in many other major cities, has been cited as a reason for Memphis's frequent appearance on lists of most dangerous U.S. cities.[84] With regard to homicide statistics released by the city in more recent years, they show another dramatic rise in murders committed in Memphis. There were 140 homicides in the city in 2014 and 161 the following year.[85][86] Then, in 2016, police officials recorded 228 murders, a total that marked a 63% increase in homicides since 2014.[87] According to Michael Rallings, the director of the Memphis Police Department, investigations determined that one third of the murder victims in 2016 had been involved in gang activity.[88]

The city's central geographic location has been strategic to its business development. Located on the Mississippi River and intersected by five major freight railroads and two Interstate Highways, I-40 and I-55, Memphis is ideally located for commerce in the transportation and shipping industry. Its access by water was key to its initial development, with steamboats plying the Mississippi river. Railroad construction strengthened its connection to other markets to the east and west.

Since the second half of the 20th century, highways and interstates have played major roles as transportation corridors. A third interstate, I-69, is under construction, and a fourth, I-22, has recently been designated from the former High Priority Corridor X. River barges are unloaded onto trucks and trains. The city is home to Memphis International Airport, the world's second busiest cargo airport (following Hong Kong). Memphis serves as a primary hub for FedEx Express shipping.

As of 2014, Memphis was the home of three Fortune 500 companies: FedEx (no. 63), International Paper (no. 107), and AutoZone (no. 306).[89]

Other major corporations based in Memphis include Allenberg Cotton, American Residential Services (also known as ARS/Rescue Rooter); Baker, Donelson, Bearman, Caldwell & Berkowitz; Cargill Cotton, City Gear, First Horizon National Corporation, Fred's, GTx, Lenny's Sub Shop, Mid-America Apartments, Perkins Restaurant and Bakery, ServiceMaster, True Temper Sports, Varsity Brands, and Verso Paper. Corporations with major operations based in Memphis include Gibson guitars (based in Nashville), and Smith & Nephew.

The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis also has a branch in Memphis.

The entertainment and film industries have discovered Memphis in recent years. Several major motion pictures, most of which were recruited and assisted by the Memphis & Shelby County Film and Television Commission,[90] have been filmed in Memphis, including Making the Grade (1984), Elvis and Me (1988), Great Balls of Fire! (1988), Heart of Dixie (1989), Mystery Train (1989), The Silence of the Lambs (1991), Trespass (1991), The Gun in Betty Lou's Handbag (1992), The Firm (1993), The Delta (1996), The People Vs. Larry Flynt (1996), The Rainmaker (1997), Cast Away (2000), 21 Grams (2002), A Painted House (2002), Hustle & Flow (2005), Forty Shades of Blue (2005), Walk the Line (2005), Black Snake Moan (2007), Nothing But the Truth (2008), Soul Men (2008), and The Grace Card (2011). The Blind Side (2009) was set in Memphis but filmed in Atlanta. The 1992 television movie Memphis, starring Memphis native Cybill Shepherd, who also served as executive producer and writer, was also filmed in Memphis.

Cultural events

One of the largest celebrations of the city is Memphis in May. The month-long series of events promotes Memphis's heritage and outreach of its people far beyond the city's borders. The four main events are the Beale Street Music Festival, International Week, The World Championship Barbecue Cooking Contest, and the Great River Run. The World Championship Barbecue Cooking Contest is the largest pork barbecue-cooking contest in the world.

In April, downtown Memphis celebrates "Africa in April Cultural Awareness Festival", or simply Africa in April. The festival was designed to celebrate the arts, history, culture, and diversity of the African diaspora. Africa in April is a three-day festival with vendors' markets, fashion showcases, blues showcases, and an international diversity parade.[91]

During late May-early June, Memphis is home to the Memphis Italian Festival at Marquette Park. The 2019 festival will be its 30th and has hosted musical acts, local artisans, and Italian cooking competitions. It also presents chef demonstrations, the Coors Light Competitive Bocce Tournament, the Galtelli Cup Recreational Bocce Tournament, a volleyball tournament, and pizza tossing demonstrations. This festival was started by Holy Rosary School and Parish and began inside the School parking lot in 1989. The Memphis Italian Festival is run almost completely by former and current Holy Rosary School and Church members and begins with a 5K run each year.

Carnival Memphis, formerly known as the Memphis Cotton Carnival, is an annual series of parties and festivities in June that salutes various aspects of Memphis and its industries. An annual King and Queen of Carnival are secretly selected to reign over Carnival activities. From 1935 to 1982, the African-American community staged the Cotton Makers Jubilee; it has merged with Carnival Memphis.[92]

A market and arts festival, the Cooper-Young Festival,[93] is held annually in September in the Cooper-Young district of Midtown Memphis. The event draws artists from all over North America and includes local music, art sales, contests, and displays.

Memphis sponsors several film festivals: the Indie Memphis Film Festival, Outflix, and the Memphis International Film and Music Festival. The Indie Memphis Film Festival is in its 14th year and was held April 27–28, 2013.[94] Recognized by MovieMaker Magazine as one of 25 "Coolest Film Festivals" (2009) and one of 25 "Festivals Worth the Entry Fee" (2011), Indie Memphis offers Memphis year-round independent film programming, including the Global Lens international film series, IM Student Shorts student films, and an outdoor concert film series at the historic Levitt Shell. The Outflix Film Festival, also in its 15th year, was held September 7–13, 2013. Outflix features a full week of LGBT cinema, including short films, features, and documentaries. The Memphis International Film and Music Festival is held in April; it is in its 11th year and takes place at Malco's Ridgeway Four.

Mid-South Pride is Tennessee's second-largest LGBT pride event.[95][96]

On the weekend before Thanksgiving, the Memphis International Jazz Festival is held in the South Main Historic Arts District in Downtown Memphis. This festival promotes the important role Memphis has played in shaping Jazz nationally and internationally. Acts such as George Coleman, Herman Green, Kirk Whalum and Marvin Stamm all come out of the rich musical heritage in Memphis.

Formerly titled the W. C. Handy Awards, the International Blues Awards are presented by the Blues Foundation (headquartered in Memphis) for Blues music achievement. Weeklong playing competitions are held, as well as an awards banquet including a night of performance and celebration.

Music

Memphis is the home of founders and pioneers of various American music genres, including Memphis soul, Memphis blues, gospel, rock n' roll, rockabilly, Memphis rap, Buck, crunk, and "sharecropper" country music (in contrast to the "rhinestone" country sound historically associated with Nashville).

Many musicians, including Aretha Franklin, Jerry Lee Lewis, Johnny Cash, Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins, Roy Orbison, Booker T. & the M.G.'s, Otis Redding, Isaac Hayes, Shawn Lane, Al Green, Rance Allen, Percy Sledge, Solomon Burke, William Bell, Sam & Dave and B.B. King, got their start in Memphis in the 1950s and 1960s.

Beale Street is a national historical landmark, and shows the impact Memphis has had on American blues, particularly after World War II as electric guitars took precedence over the original acoustic sound from the Mississippi Delta. Sam Phillips's Sun Studio still stands, and is open for tours. Elvis, Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis, Carl Perkins and Roy Orbison all made their first recordings there, and were "discovered" by Phillips. Many great blues artists recorded there, such as W. C. Handy, the "Father of the Blues."

Stax Records created a classic 1960s soul music sound, much grittier and horn-based than the better-known Motown from Detroit. Booker T. and the M.G.s were the label's backing band for most of the classic hits that came from Stax, by Sam & Dave, Otis Redding, Wilson Pickett, and many more. The sound was revisited in the 1980s in the Blues Brothers movie, in which many of the musicians starred as themselves.

Memphis is also noted for its influence on the power pop musical genre in the 1970s. Notable bands and musicians include Big Star, Chris Bell, Alex Chilton, Tommy Hoehn, The Scruffs, and Prix.[97][98]

Several notable singers are from the Memphis area, including Justin Timberlake, K. Michelle, Kirk Whalum, Three 6 Mafia, Ruth Welting, Kid Memphis, Kallen Esperian, and Andrew VanWyngarden. The Metropolitan Opera of New York had its first tour in Memphis in 1906; in the 1990s it decided to tour only larger cities. Metropolitan Opera performances are now broadcast in HD at local movie theaters across the country.

Cuisine

Visual art

In addition to the Brooks Museum and Dixon Gallery and Gardens, Memphis plays host to two burgeoning visual art areas, one city-sanctioned, and the other organically formed.

The South Main Arts District is an arts neighborhood in south downtown. Over the past 20 years, the area has morphed from a derelict brothel and juke joint neighborhood to a gentrified, well-lit area sponsoring "Trolley Night", when arts patrons stroll down the street to see fire spinners, DJs playing in front of clubs, specialty shops and galleries.[99][100]

Another developing arts district in Memphis is Broad Avenue. This east–west avenue is undergoing neighborhood revitalization from the influx of craft and visual artists taking up residence and studios in the area.[101][102] An art professor from Rhodes College holds small openings on the first floor of his home for local students and professional artists. Odessa, another art space on Broad Avenue, hosts student art shows and local electronic music. Other gallery spaces spring up for semi-annual artwalks.[103][104]

Memphis also has non-commercial visual arts organizations and spaces, including local painter Pinkney Herbert's Marshall Arts gallery, on Marshall Avenue near Sun Studios, another arts neighborhood characterized by affordable rent.[105]

Literature

Well-known writers from Memphis include Shelby Foote, the noted Civil War historian. Novelist John Grisham grew up in nearby DeSoto County, Mississippi, and sets many of his books in Memphis.

Many works of fiction and literature are set in Memphis. These include The Reivers by William Faulkner (1962), September, September by Shelby Foote (1977); Peter Taylor's The Old Forest and Other Stories (1985), and his Pulitzer Prize-winning A Summons to Memphis (1986); The Firm (1991) and The Client (1993), both by John Grisham; Memphis Afternoons: a Memoir by James Conaway (1993), Plague of Dreamers by Steve Stern (1997); Cassina Gambrel Was Missing by William Watkins (1999); The Guardian by Beecher Smith (1999), "We are Billion-Year-Old Carbon" by Corey Mesler (2005), The Silence of the Lambs by Thomas Harris, and The Architect by James Williamson (2007).

Tourism

Points of interest

Peabody Hotel
  • Beale Street - a significant location in the city's history, as well as in the history of the blues. Street performers play live music, and bars and clubs feature live entertainment.
  • Graceland - The private residence of Elvis Presley
  • Memphis Zoo - features exhibits of mammals, birds, fish, and amphibians.
  • Peabody Hotel - known for the "Peabody Ducks" on the hotel rooftop.
  • Sun Studio - a recording studio opened in 1950; it now also contains a museum.
  • Orpheum Theatre - features Broadway shows, Ballet Memphis and Opera Memphis.
  • The New Daisy Theatre - concert venue located on Beale Street.
  • Mud Island Amphitheatre - concert venue.[106]
  • Memphis Pyramid - location of the largest Bass Pro Shops in the world, an observation deck, restaurants, bowling alley, aquarium, and hotel.[107]

Other Memphis attractions include the Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium, FedExForum, and Mississippi riverboat day cruises.

Museums and art collections

National Civil Rights Museum at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis (2012)
Memphis Brooks Museum of Art
Mud Island Mississippi River Park
Stax Museum and Satellite Record Shop

Media related to Memphis, Tennessee at Wikimedia Commons

  • National Civil Rights Museum - located in the Lorraine Motel and related buildings, where Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated. It includes a historical overview of the American civil rights movement and interpretation of historic and current issues.
  • Memphis Brooks Museum of Art - the oldest and largest fine art museum in Tennessee;[108] the collection includes Renaissance, Baroque, Impressionist, and 20th century artists.
  • Belz Museum of Asian and Judaic Art - contains a large collection of Asian jade art, Asian art, and Judaic art.
  • Dixon Gallery and Gardens - focuses on French and American impressionism, and contains the Stout Collection of 18th-century German porcelain, as well as a 17-acre (6.9 ha) public garden.
  • Children's Museum of Memphis - exhibits interactive and educational activities for children.
  • Graceland - the home of Elvis Presley, it attracts over 600,000 visitors annually, and features two of Presley's airplanes, his automobile and motorcycle collection, and other memorabilia. Graceland is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[109]
  • Pink Palace Museum and Planetarium - a science and historical museum; it includes the third largest planetarium in the United States and an IMAX theater.
  • Beale Street - a public exhibit honoring Memphis musicians, singers, writers and composers.
  • Mud Island - a park with a walking trail featuring a scale model of the Mississippi River.
  • Mississippi River Museum - a maritime museum on Mud Island that focuses on the history of the Mississippi River.
  • Victorian Village - a historic district featuring Victorian-era mansions, some of which are open to the public as museums.
  • The Cotton Museum - located on the old trading floor of the Memphis Cotton Exchange.
  • Stax Museum - the former location of Stax Records.
  • Chucalissa Indian Village - a Walls Phase mound and plaza complex operated by the University of Memphis. The village is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, and is a National Historic Landmark. The Southeast Indian Heritage Festival is held there annually.[110]
  • Burkle Estate - a historic home now used as a museum of slavery and the anti-slavery movement.[111]

Cemeteries

Memphis National Cemetery

Media related to Cemeteries in Memphis, Tennessee at Wikimedia Commons

The Memphis National Cemetery is a United States National Cemetery located in northeastern Memphis.

Historic Elmwood Cemetery is one of the oldest rural garden cemeteries in the South, and contains the Carlisle S. Page Arboretum. Memorial Park Cemetery is noted for its sculptures by Mexican artist Dionicio Rodriguez.

Elvis Presley was originally buried in Forest Hill Cemetery, the resting place of his backing band's bassist, Bill Black. After an attempted grave robbing, his body was moved and reinterred at the grounds of Graceland.

FedExForum during a Grizzlies game

The Memphis Grizzlies of the National Basketball Association is the only team from one of the "big four" major sports leagues in Memphis.[112] The Memphis Redbirds of the Pacific Coast League is a Triple-A baseball farm team for the St. Louis Cardinals.[113]

The University of Memphis college basketball team, the Memphis Tigers, has a strong following in the city due to a history of competitive success. The Tigers have competed in three NCAA Final Fours (1973, 1985, 2008), with the latter two appearances being vacated. The current coach of the Memphis Tigers is Anfernee Hardaway. Memphis is home to Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium, the site of University of Memphis football, the Liberty Bowl and the Southern Heritage Classic.

The annual St. Jude Classic, a regular part of the PGA Tour, is also held in the city. Each February the city hosts the Regions Morgan Keegan Championships and the Cellular South Cup, which are men's ATP World Tour 500 series and WTA events, respectively.

Memphis has a significant history in pro wrestling. Jerry "The King" Lawler and Jimmy "The Mouth of the South" Hart are among the sport's most well-known figures who came out of the city. Sputnik Monroe, a wrestler of the 1950s, like Lawler, promoted racial integration in the city. Ric Flair also noted Memphis as his birthplace.

In the 1970s and early 1980s, the former WFL franchise Memphis Southmen / Memphis Grizzlies sued the NFL in an attempt to be accepted as an expansion franchise. In 1993, the Memphis Hound Dogs was a proposed NFL expansion that was passed over in favor of the Jacksonville Jaguars and Carolina Panthers. The Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium also served as the temporary home of the former Tennessee Oilers (now the Titans) while the city of Nashville worked out stadium issues.

The city is also the site of Memphis International Raceway, which held NASCAR events from 1998 to 2009, when Dover Motorsports closed it. In 2011 it reopened under different ownership. It no longer holds NASCAR races, but the Arca Menards Series returned to the track in 2020.

Media related to Parks in Memphis, Tennessee at Wikimedia Commons Major Memphis parks include W.C. Handy Park, Tom Lee Park, Audubon Park, Overton Park including the Old Forest Arboretum,[114] the Lichterman Nature Center (a nature learning center), the Memphis Botanic Garden,[115] and Jesse H Turner Park.

Shelby Farms park, located at the eastern edge of the city, is one of the largest urban parks in the United States.

Beginning in 1963, Memphis adopted a mayor-council form of government, with 13 City Council members, six elected at-large from throughout the city and seven elected from geographic districts. Following passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, civil rights activists challenged the at-large is electoral system in court because it made it more difficult for the minority to elect candidates of their choice; at-large voting favored candidates who could command a majority across the city. In 1995, the city adopted a new plan. The 13 Council positions are elected from nine geographic districts: seven are single-member districts and two elect three members each.

Jim Strickland, a Democrat, is the city's mayor, elected on October 8, 2015. He is a former Memphis city councilman.

Since the late 20th century, regional discussions have recurred on the concept of consolidating unincorporated Shelby County and Memphis into a metropolitan government, as Nashville-Davidson County did in 1963. Consolidation was a referendum item on the 2010 ballots in both the city of Memphis and Shelby County, under the state law for dual-voting on such measures. The referendum was controversial in both jurisdictions. Black leaders, including then-Shelby County Commissioner Joe Ford and national civil rights leader Al Sharpton, opposed the consolidation. According to the plaintiffs' expert, Marcus Pohlmann, these leaders "tried to turn that referendum into a civil rights issue, suggesting that for blacks to vote for consolidation was to give up hard-won civil rights victories of the past".[116]

In October 2010 before the vote, eight Shelby County citizens had filed a lawsuit in federal court against the state and the Shelby County Elections Commission against the dual-voting requirement. Plaintiffs argued that total votes for the referendum should have been counted together, rather than as separate elections. City voters narrowly supported the measure for consolidation with 50.8% in favor; county voters overwhelmingly voted against the measure with 85% against.[117] The state argued that with the election decided, the lawsuit should be dismissed, but the federal court disagreed.[116]

By late 2013, in pre-trial actions, both sides were trying to disqualify the other's experts, in discussions of whether regional voting revealed racial polarization, and whether voting on the referendum demonstrated racial bloc voting. "The experts for both sides have clashed on whether racial bloc voting is inevitable in local elections and whether that would require some kind of court remedy."[116]

The defendants' expert, Todd Donovan, did not think that polarized voting as revealed for political candidates meant that "African-American voters and white voters have polarized interests when it comes to referendum choices on government administration, taxation, service provision and other policy questions."[116] He noted, "In the absence of distinct political interests that create polarized blocs of referendum voters defined by race, there is no cohesive racial minority voting interest that can be diluted by a referendum."[116]

In 2014, the federal district court dismissed the lawsuit, on the grounds that the referendum would have failed when both jurisdictions' votes were counted together. (In total voting, 64% of voters opposed the consolidation.) In the last week of December 2014, the U.S. Sixth District Court of Appeals upheld that decision, ruling that, ""In this election, the referendum for consolidation did not pass and would not have passed even if there had been no dual-majority vote requirement (with the vote counts combined)."[117]

Before the referendum, the decision was made by the city and county to exclude public school management and operations from the proposed consolidation. As noted below, in 2011 the Memphis city council voted to dissolve its city school board and consolidate with the Shelby County School System, without the collaboration or agreement of Shelby County.[118] The city had authority for this action under Tennessee state laws that differentiate between city and county powers.

Early nursing class in Memphis

The city is served by Shelby County Schools. On March 8, 2011, residents voted to dissolve the charter for Memphis City Schools, effectively merging it with the Shelby County School District.[119] After issues with state law and court challenges, the merger took effect the start of the 2013–14 school year. In Shelby County, six incorporated cities voted to establish separate school systems in 2013.

The Shelby County School System operates more than 200 elementary, middle, and high schools.

The Memphis area is also home to many private, college-prep schools: Briarcrest Christian School (co-ed), Christian Brothers High School (boys), Evangelical Christian School (co-ed), First Assembly Christian School (co-ed), St. Mary's Episcopal School (girls), Hutchison School (girls), Lausanne Collegiate School (co-ed), Memphis University School (boys), Saint Benedict at Auburndale (co-ed), St. Agnes Academy (girls), Immaculate Conception Cathedral School (girls), and Elliston Baptist Academy (co-ed). Also included in this list is Memphis Harding Academy, a co-ed school affiliated with the Churches of Christ.

Colleges and universities located in the city include the University of Memphis, including University of Memphis Cecil C. Humphreys School of Law, Rhodes College, Christian Brothers University, Memphis College of Art, LeMoyne–Owen College, Baptist College of Health Sciences, Memphis Theological Seminary, Harding School of Theology, Embry–Riddle Aeronautical University, Worldwide (Memphis Campus),[120] Reformed Theological Seminary (satellite campus), William R. Moore College of Technology, Southern College of Optometry, Southwest Tennessee Community College, Tennessee Technology Center at Memphis, Visible Music College, Mid-America Baptist Theological Seminary, and the University of Tennessee Health Science Center. Memphis also has campuses of several for-profit post-secondary institutions, including Concorde Career College, ITT Technical Institute, Remington College,[121] Vatterott College,[122] and University of Phoenix.

The University of Tennessee College of Dentistry was founded in 1878, making it the oldest dental college in the South, and the third oldest public college of dentistry in the United States.[123]

The Christian Brothers High School Band is the oldest high school band in America, founded in 1872.[124]

Examples of Colleges and Universities in Memphis, Tennessee

  • University of Memphis
  • Rhodes College
  • Southwest Tennessee Community College
  • Christian Brothers University
  • LeMoyne–Owen College
  • University of Tennessee Health Science
  • Memphis College of Art
  • Southern College of Optometry

Newspapers

Television

Nielsen Media Research currently defines Memphis and its surrounding metropolitan area as the 51st largest American media market.[130] Despite Memphis proper's large size, Memphis has always been a medium-sized market; the nearby suburban and rural areas are not much larger than the city itself.

Major broadcast television affiliate stations in the Memphis area include, but are not limited to:

Radio

Terrestrial broadcast radio stations in the Memphis area include, but are not limited to:

FM stations

AM stations

Cultural references

Music

Memphis is the subject of numerous pop and country songs, including "The Memphis Blues" by W. C. Handy, "Memphis, Tennessee" by Chuck Berry, "Night Train to Memphis" by Roy Acuff, "Goin' to Memphis" by Paul Revere and the Raiders, "Queen of Memphis" by Confederate Railroad, "Memphis Soul Stew" by King Curtis, "Maybe It Was Memphis" by Pam Tillis, "Graceland" by Paul Simon, "Memphis Train" by Rufus Thomas, "All the Way from Memphis" by Mott the Hoople, "Wrong Side of Memphis" by Trisha Yearwood, "Stuck Inside of Mobile with the Memphis Blues Again" by Bob Dylan, "Memphis Skyline" by Rufus Wainwright, "Sequestered in Memphis" by The Hold Steady and "Walking in Memphis" by Marc Cohn.

In addition, Memphis is mentioned in scores of other songs, including "Proud Mary" by Creedence Clearwater Revival, "Honky Tonk Women" by the Rolling Stones, "Dixie Chicken" by Little Feat, "Who's Gonna Fill Their Shoes" by George Jones, "Daisy Jane" by America, "Life Is a Highway" by Tom Cochrane, "Black Velvet" by Alannah Myles, "Cities" by Talking Heads, "Crazed Country Rebel" by Hank Williams III, "Pride (In the Name of Love)" by U2, "M.E.M.P.H.I.S." by the Disco Biscuits, "New New Minglewood Blues" and "Candyman" by the Grateful Dead, "You Should Be Glad" by Widespread Panic, "Roll With Me" by 8Ball & MJG, "Someday" by Steve Earle and popularly recorded by Shawn Colvin, and many others.

More than 1,000 commercial recordings of over 800 distinct songs contain "Memphis" in them. The Memphis Rock N' Soul Museum maintains an ever updated list of these on their website.[134]

Film and television

Many films are set in the American city including, Black Snake Moan, The Blind Side, Cast Away, Choices: The Movie, The Client, The Firm, Forty Shades of Blue, Great Balls of Fire!, Hustle & Flow, Kill Switch, Making the Grade, Memphis Belle, Mississippi Grind, Mystery Train, N-Secure, The Rainmaker, The Silence of the Lambs, Soul Men, and Walk the Line.

Many of those and other films have also been filmed in Memphis including, Black Snake Moan, Walk the Line, Hustle & Flow, Forty Shades of Blue, 21 Grams, A Painted House, American Saint, The Poor and Hungry, Cast Away, Woman's Story, The Big Muddy, The Rainmaker, Finding Graceland, The People vs. Larry Flynt, The Delta, Teenage Tupelo, A Family Thing, Without Air, The Firm, The Client, The Gun in Betty Lou's Handbag, Trespass, The Silence of the Lambs, Great Balls of Fire!, Elvis and Me, Mystery Train, Leningrad Cowboys Go America, Heart of Dixie, The Contemporary Gladiator, U2: Rattle and Hum, Making the Grade, The River Rat, The River, Hallelujah!, Elizabethtown, 3000 Miles to Graceland, A Face in the Crowd, Undefeated, Man on the Moon, Nothing But the Truth, Sore Losers, Soul Men, I Was a Zombie for the F.B.I., I'm From Hollywood, The Grace Card, This is Elvis, Cookie's Fortune, Open Five, The Open Road, In the Valley of Elah, Walk Hard, My Blueberry Nights, Savage Country, and Two-Lane Blacktop.[135]

The television series Greenleaf, Memphis Beat, Quarry and Bluff City Law are set in the city.

Literature

Many works of fiction and literature are set in Memphis. These include The Reivers by William Faulkner (1962), September, September by Shelby Foote (1977); Peter Taylor's The Old Forest and Other Stories (1985), and his Pulitzer Prize-winning A Summons to Memphis (1986); The Firm (1991) and The Client (1993), both by John Grisham; Memphis Afternoons: a Memoir by James Conaway (1993), Plague of Dreamers by Steve Stern (1997); Cassina Gambrel Was Missing by William Watkins (1999); The Guardian by Beecher Smith (1999), "We are Billion-Year-Old Carbon" by Corey Mesler (2005), The Silence of the Lambs by Thomas Harris, and The Architect by James Williamson (2007).

Transportation

Highways

Interstate 40, Interstate 55, Interstate 22, Interstate 240, Interstate 269, and State Route 385 are the main expressways in the Memphis area. Interstates 40 and 55 cross the Mississippi River at Memphis from the state of Arkansas.[136] Interstate 69 is a proposed interstate that, upon completion, would connect Memphis to Canada and Mexico.[137]

I-40 is a coast-to-coast freeway that connects Memphis to Nashville and on to North Carolina to the east, and Little Rock, Arkansas, Oklahoma City, and the Greater Los Angeles Area to the west. I-55 connects Memphis to St. Louis and Chicago to the north, and Jackson, Mississippi and New Orleans to the south. I-240 is the inner beltway which serves areas including Downtown, Midtown, South Memphis, Memphis International Airport, East Memphis, and North Memphis.[136] I-269 is the larger, outer interstate loop immediately serving the suburbs of Millington, Eads, Arlington, Collierville, and Hernando, Mississippi. It was completed in 2018.[138]

Interstate 22 connects Memphis with Birmingham, Alabama, via northern Mississippi (including Tupelo) and northwestern Alabama. While technically not entering the city of Memphis proper, I-22 ends at I-269 in Byhalia, Mississippi, connecting it to the rest of the Memphis interstate system.

Interstate 69 is proposed to follow I-55 and I-240 through the city of Memphis. Once completed, I-69 will link Memphis with Port Huron, Michigan via Indianapolis, Indiana, and Brownsville, Texas via Shreveport, Louisiana and Houston, Texas.[137]

A new spur, Interstate 555, also serves the Memphis metro area connecting it to Jonesboro, Arkansas.

Other important federal highways though Memphis include the east–west U.S. Route 70, U.S. Route 64, and U.S. Route 72; and the north–south U.S. Route 51 and U.S. Route 61.[136] The former is the historic highway north to Chicago via Cairo, Illinois, while the latter roughly parallels the Mississippi River for most of its course and crosses the Mississippi Delta region to the south, with the Delta also legendary for Blues music.

Railroads

Three bridges over the Mississippi

A large volume of railroad freight moves through Memphis, because of its two heavy-duty Mississippi River railroad crossings, which carry several major east–west railroad freight lines, and also because of the major north–south railroad lines through Memphis which connect with such major cities as Chicago, St. Louis, Indianapolis, Louisville, New Orleans, Dallas, Houston, Mobile, and Birmingham.

By the early 20th century, Memphis had two major passenger railroad stations, which made the city a regional hub for trains coming from the north, east, south and west. After passenger railroad service declined heavily through the middle of the 20th century, the Memphis Union Station was demolished in 1969. The Memphis Central Station[139] was eventually renovated, and it still serves the city. The only inter-city passenger railroad service to Memphis is the daily City of New Orleans train, operated by Amtrak, which has one train northbound and one train southbound each day between Chicago and New Orleans.

Airports

FedEx aircraft at Memphis International Airport

Memphis International Airport is the global "SuperHub" of FedEx Express, and has the second largest cargo operations by volume of any airport worldwide, surpassed only by Hong Kong International Airport.[140][141]

Memphis International ranks as the 41st busiest passenger airport in the US and served as a hub for Northwest Airlines (later Delta Air Lines) until September 3, 2013.[142] and had 4.39 million boarding passengers (enplanements) in 2011, an 11.9% decrease over the previous year.[143] Delta has reduced its flights at Memphis by approximately 65% since its 2008 merger with Northwest Airlines and operates an average of 30 daily flights as of December 2013, with two international destinations (Cancún - seasonally; Toronto year-round). Delta Air Lines announced the closing of its Memphis pilot and crew base in 2012. Other airlines providing passenger service are: Southwest Airlines; American Airlines; United Airlines; Allegiant; Frontier; Air Canada; and Southern Vacations Express.[144]

There are also general aviation airports in the Memphis Metropolitan Area, including the Millington Regional Jetport, located at the former Naval Air Station in Millington, Tennessee.

River port

Memphis has the second-busiest cargo port on the Mississippi River, which is also the fourth-busiest inland port in the United States.[145] The International Port of Memphis covers both the Tennessee and Arkansas sides of the Mississippi River from river mile 725 (km 1167) to mile 740 (km 1191).[146] A focal point of the river port is the industrial park on President's Island, just south of Downtown Memphis.

Bridges

Four railroad and highway bridges cross the Mississippi River at Memphis. In order of their opening years, these are the Frisco Bridge (1892, single-track rail), the Harahan Bridge (1916, a road-rail bridge until 1949, currently carries double-track rail), the Memphis-Arkansas Memorial Bridge (Highway, 1949; later incorporated into Interstate 55), and the Hernando de Soto Bridge (Interstate 40, 1973). A bicycle/pedestrian walkway opened along the Harahan Bridge in late 2016, utilizing the former westbound roadway.[147][148][149]

Utilities

Memphis's primary utility provider is the Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division (MLGW). This is the largest three-service municipal utility in the United States, providing electricity, natural gas, and pure water service to all residents of Shelby County. Prior to that, Memphis was served by two primary electric companies, which were merged into the Memphis Power Company.[150]

The City of Memphis bought the private company in 1939 to form MLGW,[150][151] which was an early customer of electricity from the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). In 1954 the Dixon-Yates contract was proposed to make more power available to the city from the TVA, but the contract was cancelled; it had been an issue for the Democrats in the 1954 Congressional elections.

MLGW still buys most of its power from TVA, and the company pumps its own fresh water from the Memphis Aquifer, using more than 180 water wells.

Health care

St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

The Memphis and Shelby County region supports numerous hospitals, including the Methodist and Baptist Memorial health systems, two of the nation's largest private hospitals. Until the 1960s and the end of segregation, most hospitals only served white patients. One of the few hospitals for African Americans in Memphis in those times was Collins Chapel Connectional Hospital, whose historic building now houses a homeless shelter.[152]

Methodist Le Bonheur Healthcare, the largest healthcare provider in the Memphis region and the fourth largest employer as of 2018,[153] operates seven hospitals and several rural clinics. Methodist Healthcare operates, among others, the Le Bonheur Children's Hospital, which offers primary level 1 pediatric trauma care, as well as a nationally recognized pediatric brain tumor program. Methodist Healthcare also operates Methodist University Hospital, a 617-bed facility 1 mile southeast of Le Bonheur.

Baptist Memorial Healthcare operates fifteen hospitals (three in Memphis), including Baptist Memorial Hospital, and with a merger in 2018 became the largest healthcare system in the mid-South.[154] According to Health Care Market Guide's annual studies, Mid-Southerners have named Baptist Memorial their "preferred hospital choice for quality".

The St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, leading pediatric treatment and research facility focused on children's catastrophic diseases, resides in Memphis. The institution was conceived and built by entertainer Danny Thomas in 1962 as a tribute to St. Jude Thaddeus, patron saint of impossible, hopeless, and difficult causes.

Memphis is also home to Regional One Healthcare,[155] which is locally referred to as "The Med". In recent years, the hospital has experienced severe funding difficulties that nearly led to a reduction or elimination of emergency room services. In July 2010, The Med received approximately $40.6 million in federal and local funding to keep the Elvis Presley Trauma Center operational.

Memphis is home to Delta Medical Center of Memphis,[156] which is the only employee-owned medical facility in North America.

Individual health insurance marketplace insurers are limited, with Bright Health and Cigna offering coverage in the area.[157]

Memphis has three sister cities, as per Sister Cities International:[158]

  • – Kanifing (Gambia)
  • – Kaolack (Senegal)
  • – Shoham (Israel)

  • 1865 Memphis earthquake
  • Memphis Mafia
  • Memphis Summer Storm of 2003

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